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Full text of "Fire risk analysis : a systems approach"

NFA-SM-FRAS 

20, 198A 




FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: 
A SYSTEMS APPROACH 




STUDENT MANUAL 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



■"VERSITY OF 
LIBRARY 

AT Ur..A!\A-CHA!V!PAIGIM 
BOOKSTACKS 



National Emergency Training Center 



National Fire Academy 



Fire Risk Analysis: 

A Systems Approach 




Louis O. Giuftrida. Director 



OSTOlTOftg 



DEC 31 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign 



http://archive.org/details/fireriskanalys8420nati 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



V>oc. 

A \.g)\ FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY 

r Rational emergency training center 

NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 
FOREWORD 



The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) was 
established in 1979 and is now directed by The Honor- 
able Louis 0. Giuffrida. FEMA' s mission is to focus 
federal effort on preparedness, mitigation, and re- 
sponse to national emergencies encompassing the full 
range of natural and manmade disasters. 

FEMA' s educational center, the National Emergency Train- 
ing Center in Emmitsburg, Maryland, includes the Nation- 
al Fire Academy, United States Fire Administration, and 
the Emergency Management Institute. This center is head- 
ed by The Honorable Clyde A. Bragdon, Jr. , Acting Asso- 
ciate Director of FEMA for Training and Fire Programs. 

To achieve the Academy's legislated mandate to advance 
the professional development of fire service personnel, 
the Field Programs Division has developed an effective 
program linkage with established fire education systems 
that exist at the state and local level. It is the re- 
sponsibility of this division to support and strengthen 
these delivery systems. The National Fire Academy 
field courses have been sponsored by state training 
systems in every state. 

Fire Risk Analysis: A Systems Approach is a specialized 
course dealing with analyzing a community's fire risk 
and its protection capability. The course intends to 
help a community determine its level of acceptable risk 
and to help the community identify ways to minimize 
that risk. The course references NFPA Standard 1021. 

The course seeks, within the 1 2- hour format, to provide 
the student with a working knowledge of risk estimation 
and protection determination that will be helpful at a 
local level. 

The staff of the Training and Fire Programs Directorate 
is proud to join with state and local fire agencies in 
providing educational opportunities to the members of 
the nation's fire and rescue services. 

NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 

NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER iii 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 



The preparation of this course was made possible through the 
assistance, cooperation, and dedication of many people. The 
National Fire Academy wishes to thank all of the following 
persons and organizations for their roles in the development of 
this course. 



NFA ADMINISTRATION 

J. Faherty Casey, Deputy Superintendent 
Field Programs Division 
Gerry N. Bassett, Chief 

Training Materials Development Branch, Field Programs Divi- 
sion 

Michael T. Mitchell, Deputy Superintendent 
Resident Programs Division 



PRINCIPAL DEVELOPMENT GROUP 

Romey W. Brooks, Senior Education Specialist, Training Mate- 
rials Development Branch, Field Programs Division, National 
Fire Academy 

Byron Chaney, Chief, Palm Springs, CA 

Karen R. Kent, Requisite, Inc., Frederick, MD 

Gordon Routley, Special Assistant to the Chief, Phoenix, AZ 

Larry Schneider, Captain, Washington DC Fire Training Academy 

Dick Small, Pioneer Pacific Inc. 

ASSOCIATED DEVELOPERS, CONTRIBUTERS AND REVIEWERS 

Bruce R. Piringer and John D. Turley, Field Programs Division, 
National Fire Academy 

Dr. Harry Hickey, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 

Richard Ulrich, Montgomery Community College, Rockville, MD 

George Hayden, Bloomington, MN 

George Oster, Iowa State Extension Department, Ames, IA 

NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 

NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER V 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Fred Bradley, Gage, Babcock & Associates, Vienna, VA 
Charles Monzillo, Chief, Danbury, CT 
Jim Estepp, Prince Georges County, MD 



MEDIA AND EDITORIAL PRODUCTION SUPPORT 

James Ahern, Donald Begg, Richard Kemenyas , and John Price 
Sr., Academic Support and Operations, Office of Management 
and Administration, Media Production Center 

Anne Gettig and Jill Tallman, Energy, Management & Marketing 
Division, IMR Corporation, Falls Church, Virginia 



Joseph L. Donovan 
Superintendent 
National Fire Academy 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Foreword . 
Acknowledgements 
Table of Contents 
Schedule . 
N.F.P.A. Standards 
Comment Sheet . 

Unit I: Introduction 

Course Model ...... 

Unit II: The Community Fire Protection System 
Objective and Text . 

Student Activities ..... 
Note- taking Guide . . . . . 

Unit III: The Community At Risk 

Objective and Text . . . . . 
Student Activities ..... 
Note- taking Guide . 

Unit IV: Fire Suppression Capability 
Objective and Text . 
Student Activities . 
Note- taking Guide . 



iii 

v 

vii 

ix 

xi 

xv 

1-3 

2-3 

2-17 

2-19 

3-3 

3-35 

3-107 

4-3 

4-23 

4-79 



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Unit V: Unprotected Risk 

Objective and Text ...... 5-3 

Student Activities ...... 5-9 

Note-taking Guide . . . . . .5-13 

Appendix A : Forms Used in the Course A-1 

Appendix B: Bibliography B-1 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Day I 
A.M. 



P.M. 



Day II 

A.M. 



P.M. 



SUGGESTED SCHEDULE 



Unit I: Introduction 3/4 hr. 

Unit II: The Community Fire 1 1/4 hrs 
Protection System 

Unit III: The Community at Risk 5 hrs 



Lunch 

Unit III (continued) 

End of first day 



Unit IV: Fire Suppression in 3 hrs 

the Community 



Lunch 

Unit V: Unprotected Risk 1 hr. 

Unit VI: The Community 1 1/2 hrs 

Experience 

Course Examination 

Evaluation and Wrap- Up 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



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STANDARDS 



The National Fire Academy strongly supports the standards-making 
process of the National Professional Qualifications Board for 
the Fire Service which operates under the jurisdiction of the 
Joint Council of National Fire Service Organizations. 

The Academy, in its preparation of this course, reviewed the 
appropriate professional qualifications standards to determine 
which specific standards were to be addressed in whole or 
substantially in part. 

Those addressed in whole or in part are: 

NFPA 1021 Fire Officer I 

2-5.1 The Fire Officer I shall identify the components 

of the fire suppression organization in the 
authority having jurisdiction. 

2-5.2 The Fire Officer I shall define the authority 

and responsibility of each component of the 
fire suppression organization in the authority 
having jurisdiction. 

2-6.2 The Fire Officer I shall identify the public 

and private state organizations which support 
the fire protection services, and describe the 
functions of each. 

2-6.3 The Fire Officer I shall identify the public 

and private local organizations which support 
the fire protection services, and describe the 
functions of each. 

2-10.11 The Fire Officer I, given an actual or simulated 
target hazard and all pertinent information, 
shall develop a prefire plan, which will include 
the utilization of personnel, equipment and ex- 
tinguishing agents. 

Fire Officer III 

4-2.4 The Fire Officer III, given water systems re- 

ference materials, shall: 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



a. demonstrate knowledge of the water supply 
facilities as they apply to firefighting 
operations 

b. demonstrate knowledge of the procedures for 
mapping of auxiliary water supplies to sup- 
plement the normal system. 

4-2.6 The Fire Officer III shall demonstrate knowledge 

of how to coordinate fire department water sy- 
stem activities with other agencies. 

4-3.1 The Fire Officer III, given plans for a planned 

housing development, shall estimate the required 
fire flow and recommend hydrant distribution 
for firefighting operations. 

4-3.2 The Fire Officer III, given plans for a shopping 

center, shall estimate the required fire flow 

and recommend hydrant distribution for fire- 
fighting operations. 

4-3.3 The Fire Office III, given plans for an indust- 

rial complex, shall estimate the required fire 
flow and recommended hydrant distribution for 
firefighting operations. 

4-4.7 The Fire Officer III, given a prescribed quan- 

tity of personnel and equipment for a given 
area to be protected, shall develop a model 
plan for the utilization of those resources. 

4-9.2 The Fire Officer III shall describe the respon- 

sibilities, authority, and utilization of all 
support agencies in the jurisdiction having 
authority. 



Fire Officer V : 

6-2.3 The Fire Officer V shall demonstrate knowledge 

of supervision and adminstration of ' personnel, 
functions, and reports and the analytical abi- 
lity to improve operational efficiencies. 

6-3.5 The Fire Officer V shall identify the state and 

local agencies involved in the field of fire 
protection and describe the function of each 
agency identified. 

.NATIONAL FIRE ACADEM"Y 
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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Fire Officer VI : 

7-2.1 The Fire Officer VI, given a simulated or ac- 

tual record system, shall: 

a. demonstrate knowledge of how to analyze the 
records and data 

b. demonstrate knowledge of how to interpret 
the records and data determine validity 

c. demonstrate knowledge of how to evaluate the 
data for the purpose of recommending improve- 
ments. 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



COMMENT SHEET 
Fire Risk Analysis: A Systems Approach 



DATE NAME 



ADDRESS 



ORGANIZATION REPRESENTED 



Use this sheet to make any suggestions, recommendations, or comment.' 
Your help is appreciated. Use additional pages, if necessary. 



RETURN TO: Training Materials Development 
National Fire Academy 
National Emergency Training Center 
Federal Emergency Management Agency 
16825 S. Seton Ave. 
Emmitsburg, MD 21727 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



UNIT I 
INTRODUCTION 



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Introduct ion 



Why This There can be little doubt that firefighters are 
Course? easily caught up in the excitement of fighting 
fires. And this is not hard to understand. Yet, 
one would hope that when the average firefighter 
thinks of the profession, more than the images of 
flashing lights, sirens, smoke and fire come to 
mind. 



A Systems 
Approach 



For the smaller fire departments whether full- 
time or volunteer it is probably safe to say that 
the major part of their time is not spent in 
actual firef ighting. In fact, it is probably 
only a very small percentage of the time. 

As one goes up to scale and reaches into the 
larger departments, especially those that employ 
full-time firefighters, the same is probably true, 
though to a lesser extent. However, in these 
departments, one would expect to find a greater 
stress 'on aspects of the profession other than 
firef ighting. One thinks of prevention and all 
this word includes. 

The authors proposes a two-pronged attack to the 
topic. This course is the first of a pair of 
courses that will, if properly implemented, bring 
a fire department through a thought and planning 
process. The second course, "Community Fire De- 
fenses: Challenges and Solutions," is the plan- 
ning part. Together they form a systematic ap- 
proach to the fire problem a community has and 
lead to a plan to deal with the problem. 

They open up large areas of possibilities. The 
authors of this course, "Fire Risk Analysis: A 
Systems Approach," believe that there is a lot 
beyond actual firefighting that needs and can be 
done if the fire service wishes to be responsive 
in a cost-effective and efficient way to reduced 
budgets evidenced in hiring freezes, cut training 
funds, etc. 

The emphasis from the start is that the senior 
fire officer is a manager. His responsibility is 
a make sure that the public who support the fire 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



service through taxes or voluntary contributions 
get the best service in the most efficient manner 
possible. This means that hard decisions will 
have to be made, especially in today's difficult 
economic conditions. 

The manager, therefore, needs to approach the 
fire problem in the community is a wholistic way. 
The manager needs a systematic approach that al- 
lows for a comprehensive view of the community. 
The course calls it the "helicopter" perspective 
because it is analogous to the view that one can 
get from the air as when the police traffic chop- 
per gives the daily rush-hour report. 

Before making decisions the manager needs to see 
the big picture and consider the range of needs, 
and resources. 



Detailed The first real "action" step is to do a careful 
Risk and systematic analysis of the fire risk in the 

Analysis community. This means identifying all the target 
hazards (or at least the major types ) and doing an 
in-depth analysis of what makes them particularly 
critical hazards. One will need to divide the 
community into some kind of manageable way. The 
course proposes the fire management area concept 
as one way. 

Then one looks at the requirements for each 
hazard (or type of hazard) and estimates, using 
a rather involved but not difficult method, the 
needed fire flow for to handle the incident. It 
is one area where the course has broken new 
ground and the authors are excited about the im- 
pact this can have on the fire service. 

Following this part of risk analysis, one then 
does a life risk analysis for the target hazards, 
again using an innovative method, this one not as 
complex. Next one does a community consequences 
estimate which completes the risk analysis. 

These three bits of information together give the 
fire manager a composite picture of the hazard 
in terms of what is at stake relative to life, to 
property and to community conseqences. 



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Fire What resources are need to effectively handle the 
Suppression hazards identitied so that they do not negatively 
Capability impact on the community? This is the next step. 
Looking at the hazards from an initial attack and 
a sustained attack perspective, the manager will 
be able to state quite accurately whether there 
are or are not adequate resources to deal with it. 
Here, too, the authors have introduced some novel 
concepts and methods to analyze the problem. 

Unprotected All of the above analysis might well lead the 
Risk manager to the conclusion, painful as it may be, 
that the community has a lot of unprotected risk. 
This is the hazard residue, as it were, above and 
beyond that which the community can now handle 
with its resources. There is a deficit. The 
community is at risk in several areas, and some- 
thing needs to be done about it. 

Creative The last step of the first course is an initial 
Solutions identification of some possible solutions to the 
problems that surfaced. 

Even at this early stage, some common problems in 
the fire protection system should be surfacing. 
These, however painful their realization, will 
give the fire manager a better, more realistic 
picture of what is out there. This is a step in 
the right direction. For one cannot really do the 
most effective and efficient job for one's consti- 
tuents if the data base from which one operates 
is wrong. 

The second course, "Community Fire Defenses: Chal- 
lenges and Solutions," proposes a detailed way to 
finding solutions. 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



UNIT II 

THE COMMUNITY 

FIRE PROTECTION 

SYSTEM 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY- 



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Unit II: The Community Fire Protection System 



Qbj ective 

The participants will list the major elements of a commu- 
nity fire protection system and describe the interrelation- 
ships of these elements. 



System A system is a set of interacting elements that 
Defined together form an integrated whole. The elements 
are organized for a specific purpose or to accom- 
plish a goal. 

We can think of all kinds of systems: political, 
transportation, computer, etc. In this course, 
each unit is intended to provide you with infor- 
mation which builds upon and interrelates with 
the previous units. This course will show you 
a systems approach to fire protection. 

The Human A simple but appropriate example of a system is 
Body As A the human body. The interacting elements--di- 
System gestive tract, lungs, heart, etc. --are dependent 
on the others for total integration of the whole. 
The key point to keep in mind as we move toward 
developing the community fire protection system 
concept is that each element of a system is 
important and has some relationship to the other 
parts of the system. In a fire protection system, 
some parts of the the system may have greater im- 
pact than other parts; yet to be fully and total- 
ly effective, each part must function well for 
the accomplishment of the total fire protection 
effort. 



The Auto Another example of a system is the automobile. 
As A System Here again, each element of the system has some 
relationship to the other parts. The fuel which 
explodes forces the pistons to operate. This in 
turn moves the crankshaft. Thus, fuel is a crit- 
ical element without which the system will not 

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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



operate at all. And there are different grades 
of fuel which may operate the system, but some 
will make the system less effective. 

We can relate this fuel grade example to the com- 
munity fire protection system in that, if some de- 
partments or agencies do not accept and fulfill 
their system responsibilities, the system will not 
operate as effectively as it could. 

Every community has a fire protection system in 
place. . .right now. Often the elements, depart- 
ments or agencies of that system have either 
been ill-defined or not defined at all. 

Today' s fire managers need to have what can be 
called a "helicopter perspective," i.e., the abil- 
ity to rise above the rest and see the big pic- 
ture. 



Fire Too often, fire protection is viewed as fire sup- 
Protection pression only. "Fire protection" is used in a 
Defined much larger context than fire suppression. Fire 
protection includes all of the elements that are 
involved in maintaining loss of life, property and 
community consequence of fire to some acceptable 
level the community desires or it can afford. Some 
of these broader aspects include: 

Prevention: Code development and enforcement 
Public education and awareness 
Arson investigation 



Control: 



Fire resistive contruction 
Hazard isolation 



Suppression: Automatic suppression systems 
Detection and alarm devices 
Manual suppression systems 
Investigation 



Acceptable Unless a community has specifically identified 
Levels its acceptable levels of loss and service, it can 
be assumed that the historical loss and service 
levels are, in fact, acceptable. As the histori- 
cal levels of loss and service are more specifi- 



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cally defined and made clear to the community, 
there may emerge a desire to change the acceptable 
loss and service levels. 

Community Traditionally, fire managers have taken too great 

Fire a burden of fire protection upon themselves and 

Protection have not considered fire protection as a system . 

System In a good fire protection system, each element is 

aware that it is a part of the system and accepts 

its responsibility. A fire department cannot a- 

lone provide fire protection. It is time for this 

burden to be shared with others in the system who 

also have some fire protection responsibilities. 




With this definition of a system in mind, let's 
begin to identify those interrelated elements 
that make up a community's fire protection sys- 
tem. Most communities will have a number of the 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



same elements in their systems. Some jurisdic- 
tions, however, will have some elements that are 
unique to that community. Thus, each community's 
fire protection system is tailored to that com- 
munity. 

Fire In most jurisdictions, the fire chief is consid- 
Manager ered to be the fire manager. This is the posi- 
Defined tion that generally administers the fire pro- 
tection and control affairs of the community. 
However, in this course, the term "fire manager" 
includes not only the fire chief, but any staff 
or department personnel who could be assigned to 
assume a key role in fire protection. 

The fire manager' s role in the community fire 
protection system is to be the coordinator of the 
system. There are a number of tasks that are 
associated with this role. Some of the key ones 
are: 1) to identify all elements of the system; 
2) to *help each element clarify its fire protec- 
tion responsibilities; and 3) to cause each ele- 
ment to agree to and commit resources to fulfill 
its system responsibilities. 

As a fire manager, you are likely to be the one 
best able to help other departments and agencies 
define and clarify their fire protection respon- 
sibilities. It is important that, in coordinating 
the system, the fire manager maintain a humanis- 
tic and tactful approach. As a fire manager, you 
would likely resent another department telling 
you what your department's responsibility is in 
assisting them . To be an effective systems co- 
ordinator requires patience and tact* 



One One possible approach calls for fire managers to 
Possible list those departments and agencies in their corn- 
Approach munity that have a role in fire protection. Once 
each agency is identified, fire managers can then 
spell out the fire protection responsibilities 
for each of the agencies. Each agency is then 
advised what is being done, then asked to review 
the responsibility list and modify it as neces- 
sary. 



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Fire managers should offer to meet with each de- 
partment to clarity identified responsibilities. 
Each agency should be asked to respond in writing 
when it approves its responsibility areas. This 
will help to gain commitment from that department 
or agency. 

This cooperative approach is by far the best; 
however, under certain circumstances the fire 
manager may be forced to bring the issue to the 
administrative head of the organization (city 
manager, county manager, etc.) or directly to 
the legislative body for some review and policy 
direction. Remember, though, it is not possible 
to legislate cooperation. 

Integrated The approach being suggested in this course is an 
Emergency extension of the Federal Emergency Management A- 

Management gency's vision stated in its "integrated emergen- 
cy management" concept. The goal of this system 
is to develop and maintain a credible emergency 
management capability nationwide by integrating 
activities along functional lines at all levels 
of government, and to the extent possible, across 
all hazards. 

State and local governments can begin to reach 
this goal in a number of ways. 

1. Determine the hazards and magnitude of the risk 
in a logical and consistent manner. 

2. Assess the existing and needed capability with 
respect to the hazards and risks. 

3. Establish realistic and tailor-made plans that 
lay out the required actions for closing the 
gap between the risk and the response capabil- 
ity. 

The risk analysis process being proposed here for 
the fire service is exactly the same. It will 
reach its fulfillment only when risk analysis 
precedes and is followed by a well thought-out 
problem- solving process. 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Therefore, this course, "Fire Risk Analysis: A 
Systems Approach," and its companion course, "Com- 
munity Fire Defenses: Challenges and Solutions," 
are to be seen as two parts of the total process. 
If the fire service does its risk analysis and 
planning well, it significantly helps the local 
or county government achieve integrated emergency 
management. Probably no other agency or depart- 
ment plays such a key role as the fire service 
in this respect. 

Community Following is an example of a community fire pro- 
Fire tection system and the fire protection responsi- 
Protection bilities of each part of the system. Remember 
System that some of these departments or agencies will 
be the same in your community. However, do not 
overlook specific agencies that need to be a part 
of your unique system, 
in this respect. 



COMMUNITY FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 

The goals of this fire protection system are to 
prevent and limit life loss and property damage 
due to fire. This will be accomplished through 
the efforts of those people and agencies making 
up the fire protection system . This reduction of 
life loss and property loss will be accomplished 
through code enforcement relative to fire resist- 
ance and density of structures, through the dev- 
elopment of fire safety attitudes and maintenance 
of an adequate, well- trained and equipped fire 
suppression force. 

Fire protection for this community is not the 
sole function of the fire department. Rather 
it is a system made up of many departments and 
agencies. The fire protection role of each de- 
partment or agency is outlines as follows. 

1 . City Council/Manager: 

a. Receives recommendations from the fire 
department and determines the levels of 
services and resources to be provided. 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



b. Allocates resources of the total city 
delivery systems and determines municipal 
priorities relative to fire protection. 

2. Fire Department : 

a. Provides information and recommendations 
to the city legislators for their deci- 
sion. 

b. Within budget limitations, maintains a 
well-trained and equipped fire suppres- 
sion force for fire control. 

c. Coordinates and is responsible for public 
fire prevention education programs. 

d. Coordinates the community fire protection 
system. 

e. Provides periodic life safety and fire 
hazard inspection, correction and en- 
forcement programs. 

f. Coordinates and provides community emer- 
gency medical service (EMS) program. 

g. Conducts fire cause and arson investiga- 
tions. 

h. Recommends ordinances and fire safety 
laws to minimize loss of life and property 
by uncontrolled fire. Maintains latest 
fire prevention codes. 

i. Provides review of plans for new construc- 
tion, fire-resistive construction, sepa- 
rations, built-in fire protection, hy- 
drant layouts, apparatus access. 

3. Emergency Management : 

a. Coordinates the role of the fire service 
and other critical services within the 
entire- emergency management system. 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



b. Assures that the agency roles and func- 
tions are not usurped by other less quali- 
fied groups or individuals at times of 
large-scale disasters. 

c. Provides opportunities for specialized 
training for all emergency personnel in 
the use of specialized skills like radio- 
logical monitoring, shelter management, 
mass evacuation and care, etc. 

d. Conducts tests and exercises for the 
whole emergency management system. 

e. During emergencies, serves the as the 
focal point for the coordinated response 
of all critical services involved in the 
response. 

4. Municipal Airport : 

a. Within budget limitations, maintains a 
well- trained and equipped crash/ fire/res- 
cue force for aircraft emergencies. 

b. During those hours when the airport is 
closed to commercial aircraft, provides 
personnel to implement a second squad for 
suppression operations. 

c. Provides specialized apparatus with light 
water and dry chemical capability, prox- 
imity suits, and a 5,000-gallon tanker. 



5. Building Department 



Enforces minimum building, plumbing and 
electrical codes. Through the Uniform 
Building Code, a certain level of fire 
resistance is built into structures at 
the time of construction. The primary 
elements of this fire resistance are life 
safety, structural stability and reduc- 
tion of fire hazard of built-in systems 
in structures. 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



b. Classifies occupancies and their required 
types of construction to assure that the 
structure meets the fire and life safety 
needs of the occupancy. 

c. Issues occupancy permits which control 
changing occupancies to assure that the 
structure meets the fire protection and 
life safety needs each time the occupancy 
changes . 

d. Coordinates with emergency services on 
assignment of street numbers, names and 
requirements of posting of street num- 
bers. Approval of numbering systems for 
multiple-occupancy developments. 

e. Provides rehabilitation programs which 
serve to correct structural deficiencies, 
including fire protection problems in 
older structures. 

f. Maintains up-to-date building codes. 
6. Engineering Department : 

a. Prepares preliminary layout of fire hy- 
drants and water mains for new street 
development based on fire department 
recommendations . 

b. Considers fire apparatus access (street 
width, turning radius, cul-de-sacs) dur- 
ing street development, based on recom- 
mendations from the fire department. 

c. Checks water system plans, prepared by 
private consulting engineers, for con- 
formance to fire department regulations. 

d. Provides fire department with utility maps 
for use in prefire planning and emergency 
operations . 

-Sewer system maps 
-Storm drain system maps 



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e. Maintains up-to-date city boundary and 
street system maps. 

7. Water Agency : 

a. Maintains water supply for use in fire 
suppression (fire flows). 

b. Performs periodic inspections of hydrant 
gate valves. 

c. Assures that valving in mains is maintained 
so that maximum fire flow is available. 

d. Maintains and repairs fire hydrants, in- 
cluding flushing, painting and flow 
testing. 

e. Sends a duty man to greater alarm fires 
to assist in water supply problems. 

f . Maintains records needed to meet insurance 
grading requirements. 

g. Keeps fire department informed of hydrants 
and water mains which are "out of service." 

h. Provides connections for private fire 
protections systems. Inspects and main- 
tains street valves to assure uninter- 
rupted water supply. 

i. Provides fire department with utility maps 
for use in prefire planning and emergency 
operations. 

-Water system maps 

-Water system pressure zone maps 

8. Planning and Zoning Department : 

a. Provides information through which future 
fire protection needs can be determined. 

b. Controls design of developments which 
affect: 

-Access to buildings 
-Separation of buildings 

-Open spaces (green areas) which serve as 
fire breaks 

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c. Considers fire protection resource needs 
in determining density and types of de- 
velopments. 

d. Develops conservation and open space ele- 
ments to identify potential hazard areas. 

9 . Police Department : 

a. Provides traffic and crowd control at 
emergencies. 

b. Reports fire and fire hazards during 
patrols . 

c. Enforces "NO PARKING" ordinances which ob- 
struct fire protection facilities (fire 
hydrants, fire department connections, 
and access routes) . 

d. Assists the fire prevention division with 
fire investigations, especially the ap- 
prehension and prosecution of incendiary 
fire setters. Assists in handling and 
storing of evidence. 

e. Enforces trespassing laws in designated 
fire areas. 

f. Aero Squadron: 

1 . Provides air reconnaissance of moun- 
tain or canyon areas during brush fire 
operations . 

2. Provides patrol of canyons when closed 
to public due to areas being declared 
a high fire-hazard area. 

g. Communications Center: 

1 . Receives calls for assistance and dis- 
patches appropriate personnel. 

2. Coordinates purchase, testing, and 
repair of all fire department communi- 
cations equipment and maintains fire 
department communications/ alarm re- 
cords. 

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10. Central Services : 

a. Reproduces written fire safety materials. 

b. Prepares and prints fire prevention in- 
formation. 

c. Prepares and reproduces reports. 

d. Prepares transparencies and other visual 
aids. 

1 1 . General Services ; 

a. Shop division 

1 . Performs preventive maintenance. 

2. Performs emergency repairs. 

3. Performs refueling and repairs at 
emergency scene. 

4. Performs fabrication of equipment. 

5. Performs repair and maintenance of 
power tools. 

6. Assists in preparation of apparatus 
and vehicle specifications. 

7. Trains personnel on proper operation 
of apparatus and equipment. 

b. Building Maintenance: 

1 . Performs the maintenance of emergency 
generators . 

2. Performs maintenance on fire depart- 
ment facilities. 

3. Provides advice on preventive main- 
tenance program. 

1 2. Private Developers : 

a. Provide adequate set of new construction 
plans for fire department review to insure 



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all fire and life safety codes are being 
met. Installs fire protection systems 
as required. 

b. Cooperate with fire department in meet- 
ing local code requirements to minimize 
long-range effect of new construction. 

c. Provide 8 X 10 readable plot plans on 
larger developments for fire department 
response books. 



Summary Providing fire protection services involves many 
departments and agencies. Every community has a 
fire protection system, although often the players 
in the system have not been defined. 

The modern fire manager is responsible for clari- 
fying and coordinating community fire protection. 

If your system has not been defined, a good place 
to start is with the forms on pages 2-15 and 2-16 
of this manual. 



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GROUP ACTIVITY 

In small groups of four or five as indicated by the instructor 
you will do three things. 

1 . Name three public or private agencies or organizations in 
your community that have a role in the fire prevention or 
protection. 

2. Briefly describe the role of each. 

3. Give three or four examples of what can happen if each 
agency or organization fails to play its expected role. 

Agency 1 : 

Role: 



Results 1 



Results 2 



Results 3 



Results 4 



Agency 2: 
Role: 



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Results 1 



Results 2 



Results 3. 



Results 4 



Agency 3 : 
Role: 



Results 1 



Results 2 



Results 3 



Results 4 



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Unit II: The Community Fire Protection System 



I, Systems 

A. Definition 



B. Purpose 



C. Benefits 



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D. System operation 

1. Not well defined 



2. Elements not always evident 



3. Change possible 



4. Systems everywhere 



E. Fire protection as a system 
1. Purpose 



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2. Broader picture 



II. Community Fire Protection 
A. Definition 



B. Considerations 



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1. Common elements 



2. Variations 



C. Levels of protection 



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III. The fire manager 

A. System coordinator 



B. Part of management team 



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UNIT III 

THE COMMUNITY 

AT RISK 



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Unit III: The Community at Risk 



Qbj ective 

The participants will be able to define fire risk, class- 
ify different types of risk and estimate fire risk using 
specific measurement tools. 



I . Background 

Potential Potential loss measures both the likelihood that 
Loss an unwanted event will occur and the magnitude of 
the loss when it does occur. While we cannot 
predict when a loss-producing event will occur, 
we can, with some degree of certainty, say that 
it is more likely to occur in one building than 
in another. The magnitude of the loss is pre- 
dictable if we will just take the time to analyze 
the probable events sequence and evaluate every- 
thing which can be lost or damaged during the 
incident. 

All loss sustained will be within three categor- 
ies: life, property and community consequences. 
Determining the potential for loss in each of 
these categories is the first step toward under- 
standing the community's fire risk problem. 

Target Fire departments have long known which buildings 
Hazard are the most likely to sustain a major loss. 
These target hazards have, in the past, been de- 
fined rather loosely and casually as "buildings 
having a high life or dollar-loss potential," or 
as "any building with a high potential for having 
a fire." 

Let's refine these somewhat and say that a target 
hazard is "any building or area which presents an 
undue challenge or risk to the fire suppression 
force or community as a whole." This challenge or 
risk is manifested by: 



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1. The potential for life loss; 

2. The impact of dollar loss; or 

3. A loss of community pride or esteem through 
the loss of an important historical, religious 
or political shrine. 

This challenge or risk may be due to one or more 
of the following factors: 

1 . Danger to the surrounding areas from escaping 
dangerous products or contaminated run-off 
water; 

2. The quantity of resources (men, equipment, 
water, etc.) needed to control the incident; 

3. An extreme difficulty in mounting an attack 
due to problems of access, fuel loading, 
occupancy, construction or other factors; 

4. The importance of the function to the community 
(a vital wooden railroad bridge, the building 
housing the town's water pump or a large tele- 
phone exchange) . 

Geographic areas with no set boundaries can also 
be evaluated as target hazards. Highway intersec- 
tions, railroad grade crossings and sections of 
highway with limited access and/or water supply 
problems are some of the more common examples. 



Fire Risk A simple definition of fire risk is the potential 
vulnerability to fire with the possibility of 
loss, injury, disadvantage or destruction. Risk 
is measured by determining what can be destroyed 
by fire and the consequences of that fire in terms 
of property, life, and community loss. To deter- 
mine fire risk, the questions who, what, where, 
why, and when need to be answered. 

Who and What 

In considering the risk presented by a target 
hazard, the twin questions of who and what define 
the extent of the problem. Is the problem, in 

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terras of fire or escaping products, going to 
endanger anyone or anything outside of the imme- 
diate area? This will determine the physical 
limits of the problem. 

Where 

In order to answer "where," two different answers 
are required which go back to a most basic under- 
standing of the meaning of target hazard. We 
want to know where the fire will or is most like- 
ly to occur. We also need to judge where the im- 
pact of the incident will be felt. Will it be 
lives, money or pride? 

The fact that a fire occurs is evidence that the 
fire protection system is not working as well as 
it should. When a fire department publishes its 
annual statistics ,■ it indicates by its number of 
runs and amount of fire loss how well it is doing 
its primary job of preventing fire. As fire- 
fighters, we generally take pride (incorrectly) 
in the number of responses we make although we 
are embarrassed (justifiably) by the mounting 
fire loss. 




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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Wh 



The answer to "why" should also cover two facets 
of the problem. The first and most important is 
the reason the fire occurred in the first place. 
This will not be covered in this course but can 
be answered in terms of public fire education and 
adequate fire codes. The second phase of the 
answer tells us why the fire suppression forces 
will have, or did have, problems controlling the 
situation. This will be in terms of adequacy of 
codes and their enforcement and the overall 
ability and preparedness of the fire suppression 
forces to handle the situation. 

When 

This last question is the one for which we have 
no answer. As mentioned earlier, we cannot pre- 
dict when a fire will occur. We can only say 
that it is more likely to occur in one building 
than in another. We also know that our skill at 
making those predictions is not what we would 
like it to be. 



Risk Risk can be modified by several factors: 
Modifiers 

• Condition of building, i.e., age, housekeeping, 
maintenance. 

• Fixed protection systems: detection, alarm, 
standpipes. 

• Construction factors: height, access barriers 
(roads, windowless building), air handling 
systems, vertical openings. 

• Code enforcement: fire education and training 
brigades, fire safety awareness. 

Some of these are risk increasers while others 
act as risk reducers. The fine tuning they give 
the overall risk evaluation is important, if for 
no other reason than because it forces us to con- 
sider these factors in an analytical way and not 
just as items on a check list. 



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Fire Inherent in tne measurement of risk is the impli- 
Fighting cation that it can be moderated by outside inter- 
Systems vention. In the event of fire, this is done by 
the fire department with or without a fixed pro- 
tection system within the building. Systems 
which can be installed within buildings can be 
classified as either active or passive systems. 

Most active systems (sprinkler or other fire ex- 
tinguishing systems) are also passive (detection) 
systems. When the system is activated, an alarm 
is transmitted so additional help can be obtained. 
A passive system, on the other hand, merely sends 
notification of a fire. While this ensures an 
early response by the fire fighting forces, it 
takes no part in the control of the problem. 

There is one passive system which does not detect 
the fire but which can aid in its control. Stand- 
pipe systems reduce the time and effort required 
to get lines into position, and reduce fatigue on 
the part of the firefighters and allow an attack 
to be made at the. earliest possible moment. It 
must be remembered that detection and standpipe 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



systems are not considered to be risk reducers 
because they take no active part in the actual 
extinguishment process. However, they can be 
expected to reduce loss. As we shall see, the 
sprinkler systems are given credit for actually 
reducing the amount of risk within a building. 

The total fire fighting capability which can be 
brought to bear on a fire is the sum of the fire 
department's total effort and the sprinkler sys- 
tem. The fixed system, while always in place and 
fast acting, is "fixed" inasmuch as its total 
capability is limited and it cannot be moved. 

The fire department, on the other hand, can 
increase its capability through call-backs or 
requests for mutual aid. It also has the ability 
to reposition itself or adjust its method and 
intensity of attack. However, even with this 
flexibility, the fire department is limited by 
its water supply, manpower and the total resources 
it has or can draw upon. 



Fire The thought of going out and making a pre-in- 
Management cident assessment of every building in town is 
Areas enough to make the staff lose its enthusiasm for 
the task. While it may be a laudable goal, it is 
not a practical first step and is not necessary. 
If a sufficient number of representative buildings 
can be identified, the desired information can be 
gotten with minimal effort. This will also reduce 
the paperwork to a level which will not overload 
the system and cause its failure. The question 
is.: How do we find our representative samples? 
The answer is found in fire management areas, also 
known as FMAs . 

Fire management areas are artificial subdivisions 
of the areas for which the fire department offers 
protection. These divisions may be based on any 
parameters the fire department wishes to choose. 
Some of the most common are grid systems, geo- 
graphic boundaries, response areas, land use, en- 
vironmental barriers, population density, con- 
struction and previous fire experience. While 
each has advantages and disadvantages, the final 
decision will have to reflect what is best for 



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the fire department and the community. Large 
urban departments may also elect to choose fire 
response areas, while smaller departments pro- 
tecting large areas may choose land use. In some 
situations, geographic boundaries may be chosen. 

If rigid divisions or boundaries do not already 
exist, or the existing ones are not practical 
or desirable to use, a grid system would be the 
logical choice. The use of a grid insures that 
all fire management areas are a standard size 
which can easily be managed by the fire depart- 
ment. 



Gridding Although a grid system is completely arbitrary, 
it does have some important features. It is not 
possible, using any of the other parameters, to 
produce areas which are consistent in size and 
reflect a desired criteria. Also, as time passes, 
conditions like population density, construction 
type, ^etc. within an area change. Once the condi- 
tions within the area have changed, it no longer 
is a valid reflection of the data in that grid. 

Once the areas are defined, the responsibility 
for gathering data and conducting the risk assess- 
ments within each area must be assigned. In some 
cases, a single area will be assigned its own team. 
In others, one team will be responsible for sev- 
eral areas. The data required from each area in- 
cludes average available fire flow, response time 
to and within the area, construction and occupancy 
types, previous fire loss statistics and other 
factors which may help define the problem and sug- 
gest solutions. 

Identify All potential target hazards must be identified 
Target within each FMA based on previously selected 
Hazards criteria (the definition of target hazard). The 
most severe are selected for a pre-incident risk 
analysis. In most cases, three to five target 
hazards per fire management area are enough to 
gain an understanding of the degree and type of 
risk which exists in each FMA and, when combined 
with the results from the other areas, will give 
the same information for the community as a whole. 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



If more than five hazards need to be addressed in 
any one FMA, either the selection process is not 
working properly or the area needs to be reduced 
in size. 

Ideally, each team will include people knowledge- 
able in local building codes, fire safety codes 
and fire suppression techniques. In this manner 
these persons can contribute toward better risk 
interpretations. When fire suppression personnel 
are used to make the survey, they must be trained 
to recognize important life-safety factors and 
code deviations. 



II. Calculating Needed Fire Flow 

Needed One of the most basic and useful tools available 
Fire Flow to the fire manager is the needed fire flow for a 
given building. Fire flow is the amount of 
water needed to extinguish a fire in an occupancy. 
In most cases, the fire flow calculated exceeds 
that which is really needed to control a fire. 
However, consideration is given to a margin of 
safety necessary under some circumstances. This 
flow is always given in gallons per minute and may 
be required for a protracted period of time. 

The needed fire flow allows the fire manager to 
study resource needs in terms of manpower, water, 
and apparatus BEFORE THE INCIDENT. If a given 
volume of water is required, one can calculate 
rather simply the number of men required to man 
the needed number of lines of the proper size. 

Consider the following example. If the needed 
flow is 250 gpm , a minimum of three men would be 
needed on one 2-1/2 inch line or two men on each 
of two 1-1/2 inch lines. The decision on maneu- 
verability, effective reach of 2-1/2 inch lines- 
versus 1-1/2 inch lines, time required to place 
in service, and other tactical considerations 
will have to be made based on local conditions. 
While figuring out the manpower needed, ventila- 
tion, search, rescue, command functions, pump 
operations, and similar ancillary functions must 
also be considered. 

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Fire Flow Two methods will be employed for the calculation 
Estimation of needed fire flow. These will give widely dif- 
ferent answers which are to be used under differ- 
ent conditions. The first is the basic cubic 
foot formula and will be used for an initial 
attack. The second method presupposes total in- 
volvement in what will become a long-term incident. 

The cubic foot formula is based on the ability of 
water to absorb heat and turn to steam. (Since 
this information is covered in greater depth in 
other National Fire Academy courses, only an over- 
view will be given here.) The cubic foot capacity 
of the largest single area in the building is cal- 
culated. By experimentation, it has been found 
that maximum extinguishment efficiency is achieved 
at a flow rate of one gallon per minute per 100 
cubic feet of involved fire area. A 30-second 
water, application at this rate should be suffici- 
ent to control most interior fires, assuming the 
fire load is not excessive and the fire is fairly 
well compartmented. Therefore for practical pur- 
poses we divide the volume in cubic feet by 100 
and the answer represents the gallon-per-minute 
flow required. 



Example For example, an area of 70 feet by 80 feet by 10 
feet totals 56,000 cubic feet. When this volume 
is divided by 200, one gets 280 total gallons. If 
divided by 100, the answer is 560 gallons per min- 
ute. If this rate of application (560 gpm) can- 
not be maintained for at least 30 seconds, it is 
very likely that the fire will extend to involve 
further areas. It will probably become more dif- 
ficult to control. The water supply, supply lines, 
attack lines and personnel requirements for 560 
gpm must be set up, even if the flow is only for 
30 seconds. This fast attack formula should give 
the fire department control of the fire. If con-- 
trol is not gained in this manner the fire depart- 
ment may be able to confine the fire until an ad- 
equate flow rate for control is achieved. 



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Alternate The alternate method for calculating fire flow is 
Method a bit more complicated. The step-by-step process 
is explained in the following "Guide for Determi- 
ning Needed Fire Flow." The guide is to be used 
with the Fire Flow Estimate Form. 

The purpose of this guide is to give fire protec- 
tion managers a systematic tool for calculating 
required fire flow for targeted buildings or 
groups of buildings. This is based on a defensive 
fire attack strategy, designed to control major 
fires and protect the surrounding area. 

The system presented here is based upon the Insur- 
ance Service Office's Guide for Determination of 
Required Fire Flow (ISO) . This procedure has been 
simplified for field use. Accurate completion of 
the form is essential. The following information 
is keyed to corresponding parts of the form. 

The "Guide For Determining Needed Fire Flow" begins 
on the next page and the "Fire Flow Estimate Form" 
is on pp. 3-16 to 3-18. 

Sprinklered The "Fire Flow Estimate Form" is not intended to be 
Buildings used for buildings which are protected by automatic 
sprinkler systems. If a properly designed and 
maintained sprinkler system is in place, the build- 
ing would not normally be considered a target haz- 
ard, since it creates minimal demand for manual 
fire suppression efforts. 

Inadequately designed or maintained sprinkler sys- 
tems should be ignored and the building should be 
considered unprotected. In partially sprinklered 
buildings, the protected area may be omitted from 
the calculations. 

The fire department should confirm that the required 
water supply volume and pressure are available for 
the sprinklers. 



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GUIDE FOR DETERMINING NEEDED FIRE FLOW 

BLOCK A: BASIC INFORMATION ' 

Occupancy Name: Self-explanatory 

Classification: The occupancy classification should conform 
with the local building code. 

Occupancy Address: Self-explanatory. 

F.M.A. : The fire management area in which the occupancy 
is located. 

Calculated by: Name of person(s) calculating the fire 
flow. 

Estimated Fire Flow: Final calculated estimate. 
FIRE FLOW ESTIMATE FORM 

BLOCK A: BASIC INFORMATION 

Occupancy Name Classification 



Address F.M.A. 



Calculated by Est. F.F. GPM 



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BLOCK B: TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION 

The examples below help identify the various types of con- 
struction. If you cannot determine the type, get the needed 
information from the Fire Prevention Division or refer to 
NFPA 220, Standard Types of Building Construction . 

Fire Resistive 

The structural elements in fire resistive buildings will be 
of steel, iron, concrete or masonry. Walls and permanent 
partitions shall be of noncorabustible fire-resistive 
construction. 

Non - Combustible 

All metal construction, including frame, siding and roof; 
or metal and masonry. 

Heavy Timber 

Heavy timber structural elements. Permanent partitions and 
parts of the structural frame may be of other materials, if 
they have a fire resistance of not less than one hour. 

Ordinary 

Buildings with masonry or concrete load-bearing walls. 
Roof and floor assemblies are combustible construction. 

Wood Frame 

Wood frame denotes the structural frame of buildings and 
not what is used to cover the frame inside or outside. 

Mixed 

For any combination of construction types within a single 
structure, use the predominant construction type. (The 
net figure must not be less than the calculated flow for 
any one section considered alone.) 



BLOCK B: DETERMINE TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION (Circle one) 
Fire Resistive Non- Combustible Heavy Timber 
Ordinary Wood Frame Mixed 

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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



BLOCK C: 



DETERMINE EFFECTIVE FLOOR AREA 



Express the area of the largest floor area in square feet. 
Add: 

a) 50% of all other floor areas EXCEPT for fire resistive 
construction; OR 

b) 25% of the two largest successive floor areas for fire 
resistive construction with vertical openings;, OR 

c) 50% of the EIGHT (8) largest successive floors for fire 
resistive construction with unprotected vertical opening! 

1. Buildings side by side having openings between them or 
separate buildings with unprotected connections are 
considered a single fire building. 

2. Sections of buildings separated by standard fire walls 
shall be considered separate fire areas. 

3. Basements and attics are not normally considered in the 
calculations. A large attic with combustible contents 
may be considered as an additional floor. 



BLOCK C: DETERMINE EFFECTIVE AREA 



Largest floor area 



Add: a) 50% of all other floor areas 
except for fire resistive 
construction; 
OR 

b) 25% of two largest successive 
floor areas for fire resistive 
construction with vertical 
separations ; 

OR 

c) 50% of eight largest successive 
floors for fire resistive 
construction with unprotected 
vertical openings. 



TOTALS COLUMN 



(sq. ft.) 



(sq. ft.) 



(C) 

total 

sq.ft 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



TABLE 1_: BASE FIRE FLOW 
Fire Area (in square feet) for Various Construction Types 



Base 


Fire 


Non- 


Ordinary* or 


Wood 


Fire Flow 


Resistive 


Combustible 


Heavy Timber 


Frame 


500 


3,300 


1 ,900 


1 ,200 


500 


750 


6,600 


3,700 


2,400 


1,100 


1 ,000 


10,900 


6,100 


3,900 


1 ,700 


1 ,250 


16,200 


9,100 


5,800 


2,600 


1 ,500 


22,700 


12,700 


8,200 


3,600 


1 ,750 


30,200 


17,000 


10,900 


4,800 


2,000 


38,700 


21 ,800 


13,900 


6,200 


2,250 


48,300 


27,200 


17,400 


7,700 


2,500 


59,000 


33,200 


21 ,300 


9,400 


2,750 


70,900 


39,700 


25,500 


11 ,300 


3,000 


83,700 


47,100 


30,100 


13,400 


3,250 


97,700 


54,900 


35,200 


15,600 


3,500 


112,700 


63,400 


40,600 


18,000 


3,750 


128,700 


72,400 


46,400 


20,600 


4,000 


145,900 


82,100 


52,500 


23,300 


4,250 


164,200 


92,400 


59,100 


26,300 


4,500 


183,400 


103,100 


66,000 


29,300 


4,750 


203,700 


114,600 


73,300 


32,600 


5,000 


225,200 


126,700 


81 ,100 


36,000 


5,250 


247,700 


139,400 


89,200 


39,600 


5,500 


271 ,200 


152,600 


97,700 


43,400 


5,750 


295,900 


166,500 


106,500 


47,400 


6,000 


greater 


greater 


115,800 


51 ,500 


6,250 






125,500 


55,700 


6,500 






135,500 


60,200 


6,750 






145,800 


64,800 


7,000 






156,700 


69,600 


7,250 






167,900 


74,600 


7,500 






179,400 


79,800 


7,750 






191 ,400 


85,100 


8,000 






greater 


greater 



*Fire flow not to exceed 6,000 gpm in one-story 
buildings not exceeding 16 feet in height. 

NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



3-16 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



BLOCK D: DETERMINE BASE FIRE FLOW 

In Table 1 , BASE FIRE FLOW , found on the next page, locate 
the range within which the area (C) falls in the column 
corresponding to the type of construction. Read the cor- 
responding "Base Fire Flow" in the left-hand column. If 
the area of the building falls in between the square feet 
on the table, use the higher square feet on the table. 

For example, a wood frame building with an effective area 
of 7,000 square feet falls between 6,200 square feet and 
7,700 square feet on the table. The Base Fire Flow will 
be 2,250 GPM, equivalent to 7,700 square feet. 

There will be some exceptions, however. 

1. The base fire flow shall not exceed: 

a. 8,000 GPM for wood frame or ordinary construction. 

b. 6,000 GPM for fire resistive or all metal construc- 
tion. 

c. 6,000 GPM for single story building regardless of 
type of construction. 

Enter the Base Fire Flow, obtained from Table 1 in the 
TOTALS COLUMN, line (D) . 



BLOCK D: DETERMINE BASE FIRE FLOW 



Select the correct GPM figure from Table 1 



TOTALS COLUMN 



(D) 
GPM 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 3-17 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



BLOCK E: OCCUPANCY FACTOR ADJUSTMENT 

For buildings with unusually high or low fire loading, 
charges or credits up to 25% of base fire flow may be 
subtracted or added. This factor is strictly for fire 
load and not for frequency of fire or life risk. 

Select the adjustment for the classification which most 
closely resembles the building under consideration. Cal- 
culate the adjustment. If HIGH risk, add the amount to 
Line (D) ; if LOW risk, subtract the amount from Line (D) . 
Enter the new adjusted total in the TOTALS COLUMN, line 
(E). 



LOW 
FIRE 
LOAD 



ORDINARY 
FIRE LOAD 



OccupTiiCy Type 

1. Storage of metal products, non- 

combustibe goods 

2. Vacant buildings 

3. Office buildings 

4. Hotels, motels) dormitories 

5. Residential occupancies 

6. Health care occupancies 

1 . Stores 

2. Business/storage occupancies 



Credits/Charge* 

- 25% 

- 25% 

- 15% 

- 15% 

- 15% 

- 15% 

No adjustment 
No adjustment 



HIGH 1. Storage of wood products, + 15% 

FIRE furniture, etc. 

LOAD 2. Storage of plastics, tires, + 20% 

flammable products 
3. High piled storage (over 21 feet) + 25% 



BLOCK E: DETERMINE OCCUPANCY FACTOR ADJUSTMENT 



Step 1 : Select a high or low fire 
load factor up to 25% 



Step 2: Multiply (D) by this 
factor. 



Step 3: If HIGH RISK, add the 
amount to (D) ; if LOW 
RISK subtract from (D) 



NEW ADJUSTED TOTAL = 



TOTALS COLUMN 



GPM 



(E) 
GPM 



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3-18 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



BLOCK F: DETERMINE EXPOSURE ADJUSTMENT 

Additional water supply, noted as a percentage of occupancy 
fire flow (E) , is charged for structures exposed by the 
fire area. The percentage of actual adjustment for each 
"face" is based upon distance and the following factors: 

1. The separation (distance) and openings in the exposure(s) 

2. The length of the exposure(s). 

3. The provision of automatic sprinklers and/or outside 
sprinklers in the exposed building(s). 

4. The effect of hillside locations on fire spread. 

This is a judgment item based on separation distance, length 
and height of the exposed face, type of construction and 
openings. A range of adjustment factors is provided. The 
selection of the factor to be used for each face is left 
to the discretion of the user, based on observed conditions 

The percentage applied should reflect actual conditions, 
but not exceed the percentage listed in the guide. The 
total percentage of adjustment should not exceed 75%. 

To determine the GPM adjustment, multiply the occupancy 
fire flow (E) by the percent of adjustment. 

Enter the result in the TOTALS COLUMN, Line (F) . 



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NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 3-19 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



BLOCK F: DETERMINE EXPOSURE ADJUSTMENT 

Using the tables below, enter the 
separation and the adjustment for 
each of the building' s four 
"faces." 



Separation Adjustment 
in Feet Range 



0-10 
11 - 30 
31 - 60 
61 - 100 



15 - 25% 

10 - 20% 

7-15% 

5-10% 



Expo- 
sure 



North 



East 



South 



West 



Sep. 
Feet 



Adj 



Total adjustment not more than 75% 



Multiply (E) by this percentage. 
Add this amount to Line E. 



NEW ADJUSTED TOTAL 



TOTALS COLUMN 



(F) 
GPM 



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3-20 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



BLOCK G: COMPUTE ESTIMATED FIRE FLOW REQUIRED 

If LESS THAN 500 GPM, enter 500 GPM. 

If GREATER THAN 12,000 GPM, enter 12,000 GPM. 

If LESS THAN 2,500 GPM, round off to the nearest 250 GPM. 

If GREATER THAN 2,500 GPM, round off to the nearest 500 
GPM. 

Enter this final figure in the TOTALS COLUMN, line (G) . 
Also enter it on Line 3 of BLOCK A. 



BLOCK G: TOTAL REQUIRED FIRE FLOW 

1f If less than 500 GPM, enter 11 

If 500 GPM. 11 

11 If greater than 12,000 GPM, 1f 

11 enter 12,000 GPM. 11 

11 If less than 2,500 GPM, 11 

11 round off (E) to the nearest 1( 

1f 250 GPM. 11 

11 If greater than 2,500 GPM, 11 

11 round off (E) to the nearest K 

1f 500 GPM. 11 



TOTALS COLUMN 



TOTAL REQUIRED FIRE FLOW (ROUNDED OFF) - 

«<< Carry this final total to Block A, Line 3 »» 



(G) 

GPM 



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NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



3-21 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



III. Estimating Life Risk 

Estimating Understanding all the factors influencing life 
Life Risk safety in buildings is a complex study involving 
building construction and human behavior. Yet, 
there is a need for a relatively simplified way to 
estimate the risk to the occupants should fire 
occur in target occupancies. 

It is recognized that a simple system may only 
bring to light potential problems and will not 
necessarily provide a thorough understanding of 
the risk or causes of the risk. If potential pro- 
blems are identified, further analysis by quali- 
fied and competent personnel will likely be neces- 
sary. The following guide presents a basic system 
by which life risk estimates can be quantified. 

The following information is presented in a form 
that is meant to be useful to persons conducting 
surveys which evaluate life risk. 

There are three important factors to be considered 
in life risk assessment. 

1 . The number of people at risk 

2. The degree of risk 

3. The ability of the occupants to provide for 
their own safety. 

Five In this system, buildings are classified into one 
Levels of five potential risk levels based on key safety 
of Risk factors which may be incorporated into the build- 
ing. This will identify the DEGREE of risk to the 
occupants. Once the building has been categorized 
into one of the five risk levels, the actual num- 
ber of lives at risk from a single fire incident 
can be projected. While the life loss in a parti- 
cular fire may be more or less, historical data 
from actual case studies indicates that the esti- 
mates will provide a good indication of the risk 
to occupants. 



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NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



No attempt has been made to estimate the potential 
life loss from fires occurring as a result of ma- 
jor or gross disasters such as earthquakes, plane 
crashes and explosions. 

Fire rescue and suppression capability can have a 
significant impact on the number of lives lost as 
a result of a given fire incident. However, there 
are many conditions that could render the fire 
department ineffective in terms of search and 
rescue, such as delayed alarm or delayed response. 

Life safety is much more dependent on the charac- 
teristics of the building and built-in safety 
features than on the ability of any fire depart- 
ment to provide search and rescue. 

Therefore, in the system suggested, the potential 
risk is based upon building factors such as exit 
capacity, structural fire resistance, smoke con- 
trol, 'suppression and detection systems. 

The ability of the occupants to provide for their 
own safety is the third key component of life 
risk. Occupancies where people sleep involve a 
greater life risk than places where all of the 
occupants are normally awake. The risk is also 
much greater to those occupants who require as- 
sistance to exit as opposed to those who require 
no help to use normal exit facilities. 

This information should provide fire managers 
with a good indication of the life risk factors 
which could be expected in a real fire situation 
at the target hazard. This must be considered in 
relation to the number of occupants, whether they 
would be asleep or awake, their physical capabi- 
lities and the necessary commitment of fire sup- 
pression personnel for search and rescue. 

This is an attempt to give community fire protec- 
tion managers a guide for estimating the vulnera- 
bility to loss of life in selected buildings. It 
will need considerable refinement in the future 
as experience provides additional information for 
improvement of the -system. It cannot substitute 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 

3-23 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



for professional fire protection engineering anal- 
ysis and should not be used for calculating risk 
in health care facilities where the physical or 
mental capacities of the occupants are impaired. 
For health care facilities, reference the Office 
of Planning and Education, U.S. Fire Administra- 
tion, FEMA Guide, "Fire Safety Evaluation System 
for Health Care Facilities." 



LIFE RISK ANALYSIS GUIDE 



STEP 1 SELECT LIFE LOSS TARGET HAZARDS 

In this first step, the occupancies that will be 
targeted for analysis will be selected. In 
smaller communities, all buildings which may 
appear to be potentially hazardous to multiple 
life loss may be selected. On the other hand, 
in larger communities, only a- typical sample 
may be surveyed, dependent upon resources and 
the number of potential risks. 

Definition of Life Loss Target Hazard 

The potential life loss risk levels may cause 
different concerns in different .communities. It 
may be helpful to establish parameters for your 
community to use as a guide in selecting target 
buildings. Three sample definitions are listed 
below. The first prescribes a very broad inter- 
pretation, the second a severity interpretation, 
and the third a more specific occupancy selection. 

Sample One: Any building in which a fire may 
occur and cause multiple life loss 
or injuries. 

Sample Two: Any building in which a fire may 
occur and place more than X people 
in potential jeopardy. 

Sample Three: Any multiple residential occupancy 
with interior exit corridors and 
in which fire may cause multiple 
loss of life or injuries. 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Once the target hazards have been identified, 
they should be organized in a systematic way by 
occupancy and fire management zone. 



STEP 2 



ORGANIZING THE SURVEY TEAM 



After the target buildings have been selected, a 
survey team(s) should be organized. Again, in 
communities where only a small number of buildings 
are to be surveyed, one team may be sufficient. 
If there are many target buildings, it may be 

desirable to form a number of survey teams. Each 
team should have two or three members. Ideally, 
a team would include people knowledgeable in 
local building codes, fire safety codes and fire 
suppression techniques. In this way, they can 
contribute jointly toward better risk interpre- 
tations . 

Fire suppression personnel may be used to make 
the surveys. They should be trained in recogni- 
zing the important life safety factors and devi- 
ations that may make them ineffective. 



STEP 3 



CONDUCTING THE SURVEYS 



As was stated before, this guide should not be 
used for evaluating health care facilities where 
the physical or mental capacities of the occupants 
may be impaired or where the freedom of movement 
of the occupants is restricted. Similarly, large 
assembly areas such as gymnasiums, auditoriums or 
large work areas may need special consideration. 

In these occupancies, attention should be given 
to the potential of a fire blocking exit ways. 
No one fire should be able to block facilities to 
the extent of inhibiting orderly egress from the 
building. Where questions arise relating to life 
safety in any existing occupancy, a nationally 
recognized fire and life safety code should be 
used. For example, there is the National Fire 
Protection Association's "Life Safety Code, No. 
101 ." 



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3-25 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Care should be exercised in determining the in- 
tegrity of exit facilities. 

In making life risk surveys there are four pri- 
mary safety factors that need to be evaluated. 

1 . Building Code Requirements 

Is the building constructed and maintained in 
accordance with a current edition of a nationally 
recognized building code? 

Deviations which may render required safety 
features ineffective: 

• Unprotected openings between floors. 

• Unprotected openings in fire walls. 

• Smoke or fire doors blocked open. 

• Inoperative fire alarms. 

• Exit corridor penetrations (transoms, ventila- 
tors , etc.) . 

• Hazardous area enclosures penetrated (boiler 
rooms, incinerators, etc.). 

• Altered ventilation systems. 

• Storage or handling of hazardous materials not 
permitted by the code. 

• Obstructed exit corridors or stairways. 

• Locked exit doors. 

2. Automatic Sprinkler Protection 

Is the building fully protected by an automatic 
sprinkler system protecting all portions of the 
building and installed in accordance with the 
requirements of a nationally recognized fire code? 

Does the building have a partial automatic sprink- 
ler system protecting all exit ways, stairways, 
open areas ancillary to the exit ways, and haz- 
ardous areas in the building? 

3. Automatic Products of Combustion Detection 
System 

Are all portions of the building protected by 
a products of combustion detection system in- 
stalled in accordance with a nationally recog- 
nized fire code? 

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3-26 NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



4. Exit Facilities 

Are exits and exit ways provided in accordance 
with a nationally recognized code, without devia- 
tions? Do all occupied areas have exits of suf- 
ficient capacity leading directly to the outside 
and to ground level in a manner so a fire that 
occurs within the building could not jeopardize 
exit facilities for any area? 



STEP 4 CLASSIFYING LIFE RISK 

Assessment of life risk must take into account 
several different factors. One of the major con- 
cerns involves the number of occupants and their 
ability to safely exit from the building without 
assistance. Very young or elderly occupants 
would indicate a higher life risk than other age 
groups. Those with physical or mental impair- 
ments would present a greater risk. Crowded oc- 
cupancies place more people in danger, increasing 
the total life risk. 

Another major concern in life risk is the use of 
the building. In residential type occupancies 
it is anticipated the occupants would be aspleep 
during a significant part of the time. The fact 
that they are not awake: and alert nor able to de- 
tect and react quickly to a fire situation great- 
ly increases their danger. Early warning smoke 
detection and alarm systems are key factors in 
compensating for the added risk. 

In making an assessment of life risk, the factors 
of numbers, age, condition and activities of the 
occupants must be taken into account. Fire of- 
ficers should project anticipated fire conditions 
on the need for search and rescue personnel to 
rapidly remove endangered occupants. The life 
risk assessment should consider whether or not 
it is even feasible for the occupants to escape 
from anticipated fire conditions, with or without 
fire department assistance. 

The following system is intended to be used as a 
guideline to categorize life risk. Experienced 
personnel may decide to place a building in a 
higher or lower classification due to particular 
circumstances or factors. 
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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Life Risk The actual classification of life risk is done 
Rating using the Life Risk Matrix on p. 3-27 and the ac- 
companying directions that follow. 

Exit A. Categorize exit arrangements into one of three 
Arrangement basic groupings: 

1 . All areas have direct exits to the exterior 
of the building at ground level or via out- 
side corridors and stairways. 

2. The building has exits complying with or 
equivalent to a current edition of a nation- 
ally recognized code with access to exits 
via the interior corridors and all stairways 
enclosure. 

3. The exit facilities do not comply with or 
are not equivalent to a current edition of 
a nationally recognized code. 



Protection 
Requirements 



B. Catagorize the level of protection provided. 

1 . The building is fully sprinklered and fully 
covered by a products of combustion detec- 
tion/alarm system. 

2. The building is fully sprinklered or fully 
covered by a products of combustion detec- 
tion/alarm system. 

3. The exit corridors are sprinklered and all 
the sleeping areas are protected by products 
of combustion detection equipment. 

4. The products of combustion detection systems 
are provided in sleeping areas only. 

5. The structure has manually activated fire 
alarm system only. 

6. No early warning system is provided. 

Refer to the matrix on page 3-27. Determine the 
basic Life Risk category from this matrix. 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



VERY LOW RISK 

These are buildings that present little or no 
identifiable risk due to very low occupancy or 
very high level of built-in protection or build- 
ings which are never occupied by more than a set 
number of occupants at any one time. A community 
may determine the appropriate number based on 
local circumstances. 

The matrix classifies the degree of life risk 
based on exit arrangements and protection. The 
classifications are based on residential occupan- 
cies (sleeping occupants) and the classification 
may be lowered by one category where all occupants 
are assumed to be awake and able to exit without 
assistance. 

OR single story buildings with direct exits to 
the exterior at ground level from every occupied 
area, fully protected by a products of combustion 
detection system. 

OR buildings fully protected with both automatic 
sprinklers and products of combustion detection 
systems and exits complying with a nationally 
recognized code. 

LOW RISK 

These are buildings that present low life risk 
because of inherent features of the building 
including construction, suppression, detection, 
and exit facilities. 

MEDIUM RISK 

These are buildings that may present significant 
life risk to the occupants in the area of the 
fire. 

HIGH RISK 

These are buildings that may present undue risk 
to occupants of the fire floor and areas adjacent 
to the fire. 

These are buildings in which occupants are not 
provided with adequate early warning and/or fire 
conditions may compromise their access to exits. 

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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Life Risk Matrix 





Exit Classification 


Protection 


Exterior 
exits 


Interior exits 
and corridor 


Inadequate 
exits 


Fully sprinklered AND fully 
covered by a detection 
system. 


very low 


very low 


low 


Fully sprinklered OR fully 
covered by a detection 
system. 


very low 


low 


medium 


Sprinklered exit corridors 
AND detectors in sleeping 
areas. 


very low 


low 


medium 


Detectors in sleeping areas 
only. 


medium 


high 


very high 


Manual fire alarm only. 


medium 


high 


very high 


No early warning system. 


medium 


very high 


very high 



Notes 

1. The survey team must consider the occupancy use and the number of people at 
risk in a building. An unusually high occupant load or other conditions 
could indicate a higher or lower life risk categorization. 

2. The matrix classifies the degree of life risk based on exit arrangements and 
protection. The classfications are based on residential occupancies (sleeping 
occupants) and the classification may be lowered by one category where all 
occupants are assumed to be awake and able to exit without assistance. 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



VERY HIGH RISK 

These are buildings which present undue risk to 
occupants of the fire floor and areas above the 
fire floor. 

These are buildings which do not provide safe exits 
from all areas and would endanger the occupants 
through the rapid spread of smoke, heat and fire. 

The following points must always be kept in mind. 

• The Life Risk Analysis Guide is simply that: a 
guide for use by knowledgeable people to esti- 
mate the potential life risk in occupied build- 
ings. 

• Unique situations will require special consid- 
erations . 

• The use by knowledgeable persons is essential. 

• The team approach is important, if not essen- 
tial. 

• The results of the survey can be used to pin- 
point risks and to make decisions relating to 
acceptable risk. 

• The level of risk will later be compared with 
the historical frequency of such instances so 
the likelihood of it occurring in the future 
can be predicted. 

Limits Finally, it must again be pointed out that this 
of the guide cannot be effectively used as an inspection 
Guide tool nor as a substitute for quality fire pro- 
tection engineering analysis. It is intended to 
be used only to estimate the relative degree of 
life risk in different buildings. 



IV. Community Consequences 

Community Community consequences take into consideration 
Conse- all of the tangible and intangible ways in which 
quences a fire may impact x>n the community as a whole. 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



The community impact will vary depending on the 
size and the character of the community. The 
same fire in two locations will often receive 
different ratings. The impact on the community 
must be evaluated in relation to the potential 
impact of a particular fire on a particular com- 
munity. 

In addition to direct life loss and property dam- 
age, losses in terms of wages and tax revenues 
should be anticipated. 

The loss of pride and community spirit felt when 
a local landmark or a tourist attraction burns 
down, the feeling of loss sensed when the oldest 
building in town disappears or the tragedy of the 
loss of the town's original records affect us all. 
Yet, we find it hard to place a value on them or 
even explain our loss to others. 

Very Low Risk 

The community would feel no loss. Damage would be 
insignificant and localized. 

Low Risk 

Other than the fire department and those directly 
involved with the fire, no community impact would 
be anticipated. 

Medium Risk 

The fire would receive limited public attention. 
Some of the people would be temporarily out of 
work and some tax revenue might be lost. 

High Risk 

The entire community would know of the fire. 
Jobs might be lost permanently and the loss of 
tax revenue could be significant. A general 
feeling of remorse would be expected. 



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3-32 NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Very High Risk 

The community expresses shock or outrage. The 
loss of jobs and tax revenue would cause major 
problems. A major portion of any investigation 
would seek out "those who allowed this to happen." 
Indicators would be large numbers of deaths, 
jobs lost permanently, bankrupt businesses, etc. 



Rating By the time the pre-incident risk assessment has 
Form been carried out and the fire risk rating form 
Utility has been filled in, we should have a good under- 
standing of what it means to both the fire de- 
partment and the community as a whole. 

The results obtained from using the form must 
be subjected to another series of questions. 

• why are the ratings so high? 

• What can be done to reduce the ratings? 

• What immediate and long-range actions should 
the fire department take to improve their 
efficiency and effectiveness? 

• Are the owners and/or occupants aware of the 
danger? 

• Is the community aware of the danger? 

• Do the same problems show up in other build- 
ings and FMAs? 

• How much loss is the community willing to 
withstand? 

• How much of the risk is unprotected, i.e., 
beyond the capability of the fire depart- 
ment? 



Answers The most obvious answer to the first three ques- 
Are tions would seem to be fixed protection in the 
Available form of automatic sprinklers or at least detec- 
tion systems. However, this would require a 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



retroactive code which would require a consider- 
able commitment of time and money. In many places 
retroactive codes are not considered as viable 
solutions . 

During the rest of the course, these and other 
issues will be studied. Problem solving strate- 
gies wili be introduced which will lead to alter- 
native solutions to the problems of risk which 
have been identified. 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



3 _ 34 NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



RISK WORKSHEET 
1. What is risk? 



Name some factors that make up risk 

A. 

B. 

C. 

D. 

E. 

F. 



3. How is risk measured? 

A. 

B. 

C. 

D. 

E. 

F. 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



CONCORD COLLEGE 



Concord College sits on a beautiful campus, 2 miles from 
the center of town. Its 500-acre campus is considered a 
showplace of American college architecture today. The cam- 
pus buildings range in age from three to 80 years and are 
kept in elegant condition by the college's high endowments, 
generous alumni and steep tuition rates. 

Almost 3,600 students live in the dormitories on campus. 
These dorms range from an eight-story fire-resistive building 
constructed in 1977 to a series of three-story edifices 
constructed in the 1920' s. Most of the buildings are two 
to four stories in height. 

Classroom and administrative buildings on campus are of 
similar vintage and construction as the dorms. The fronts 
of the buildings are dominated by white columns, and the 
backs of most buildings feature traditional fire escapes. 
Automatic sprinklers have been installed in the basements 
of a few of th v e larger buildings. The buildings erected 
since 1968 have dry standpipes in the stairways. The 
only fire protection equipment in most areas is pressu- 
rized water extinguishers and 1-1/2-inch hose cabinets. 

The campus is served by an extension of the town's water 
system. An 8-inch line feeds a loop around the campus 
and hydrants are conveniently located. The water supply 
was recently tested at 2,375 gpm. 

The campus is patrolled at night by a security force of 
three roving personnel and one supervisor. 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 3-37 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



GRACE HALL 



Occupancy & Construction Details 

Grace Hall was constructed in 1927. It is three stories in 
height with 36 domitory rooms per floor. Each dorm room is 
occupied by two students. There are three other very simi- 
lar buildings adjacent to Grace Hall in the resident area 
of the campus. 

The basic construction of the building is ordinary (brick- 
wood joisted) and each floor features a long L-shaped cor- 
ridor with rooms on both sides. The corridors are 10 feet 
wide and total 266 feet in length on each floor. The dorm 
rooms average 228 square feet and there are additional 
spaces on each floor for a small lounge, storage rooms and 
bathrooms. The total area is 13,034 square feet per floor 
with 10-feet-high ceilings. 

The two interior stairways were open until 10 years ago 
when wire-glass wall and door assemblies were installed to 
separate them from the corridors. These doors are often 
wedged open by the students to improve ventilation and most 
of the transoms are kept open. There are two exterior fire 
escapes, accessible through the bathroom windows. A manual 
fire alarm system was installed at the same time as the 
stairway partitions with pull stations at the ends and mid- 
dle of each corridor and alarm bells in each wing. The sys- 
tem is monitored at the campus security office. 

There are 1-1/2 inch hose cabinets in each section of the 
corridor, supplied by the domestic water system and pres- 
surized water extinguishers at the same locations. The full 
basement is sprinklered. 

The corridors contain a few pieces of furniture and vending 
machines. The floors are covered with carpet and the lower 
half of the walls is constructed of wood panel material. The 
upper parts of the walls and ceilings are plaster over wood 
lath. 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



3_ 38 NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



GRACE HALL 

CONCORD COLLEGE 



w Back Stairs Rr e Esc ape 

'./ 162- mi 




an an 



ORDINARY CONSTRUCTION 
3 STORIES 

36 ROOMS PER FLOOR 
2 STUDENTS PER ROOM 
CORRIDORS 10 FT. WIDE 



DORMITORY 

13034 SQ. FT. PER FLOOR 

228 SQ. FT. PER ROOM 

CEILING 10 FT. HIGH 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



3-39 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



SITUATION 



Last Friday night your department responded to a fire on the 
fourth floor of the newest dorm building. The fire gutted 
one room and caused heavy smoke damage to the corridor and 
to several other rooms. The fire was started by a candle 
that was left burning when the occupant went to watch tele- 
vision in a lounge. 

The firefighters were relieved that the door between the 
room and the corridor remained shut until they were in 
position with a 1-1/2-inch attack line. Several speculated 
about what would have happened with the same fire in one of 
the older dorms, particularly the ones with glass transoms 
over the room doors. 

Six students and two security guards were treated for smoke 
inhalation and two of the students were admitted to a 
hospital for overnight observation. In addition, five 
firefighters were treated at the scene for exhaustion. 

This was the first working fire on campus since 1962 when 
the groundskeeper ' s storage building burned down. The only 
major fire that anyone can remember was the one that de- 
stroyed the chapel on a cold winter night in 1951. 

You have decided that it is time to have a better look at 
your ability to provide adequate protection for this campus. 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



3-40 NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



INITIAL ATTACK FIRE FLOW FORM 



Occupancy: 



Largest open space: 



Dimensions of space: L: W: H: 

L x W x H 



GPM 



100 

Multiple areas 
Other open space 



Dimensions of space: -L: W: H: 



Other open space 



Dimensions of space: L: W: H: 



Other open space 



Dimensions of space: L: 



Lj x H] x \J] L2 x H2 x W2 

+ + . . . = GPM 

100 100 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 3_4l 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



FIRE FLOW ESTIMATE FORM 



BLOCK A: BASIC INFORMATION 

Occupancy Name 

Address 



Calculated by_ 



Classification 

F.M.A. 



Est. F.F. 



GPM 



BLOCK B: DETERMINE TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION (Circle one) 
Fire Resistive Non- Combustible Heavy Timber 
Ordinary Wood Frame Mixed 



BLOCK C: DETERMINE EFFECTIVE AREA 



Largest floor area 



Add: a) 50% of all other floor areas 
except for fire resistive 
construction; 
OR 

b) 25% of two largest successive 
floor areas for fire resistive 
construction with vertical 
separations; 

OR 

c) 50% of eight largest successive 
floors for fire resistive 
construction with unprotected 
vertical openings. 






NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



TOTALS COLUMN 



(sq. ft.) 



(sq. ft.) 



(C) 

total 

sq.ft 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



3-43 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



TABLE 1_: BASE FIRE FLOW 
Fire Area (in square feet) for Various Construction Types 



Base 


Fire 


Non- 


Ordinary* or 


Wood 


Fire Flow 


Resistive 


Combustible 


Heavy Timber 


Frame 


500 


3,300 


1 ,900 


1 ,200 


500 


750 


6,600 


3,700 


2,400 


1 ,100 


1 ,000 


10,900 


6,100 


3,900 


1 ,700 


1 ,250 


16,200 


9,100 


5,800 


2,600 


1 ,500 


22,700 


12,700 


8,200 


3,600 


1 ,750 


30,200 


17,000 


10,900 


4,800 


2,000 


38,700 


21 ,800 


13,900 


6,200 


2,250 


48,300 


27,200 


17,400 


7,700 


2,500 


59,000 


33,200 


21 ,300 


9,400 


2,750 


70,900 


39,700 


25,500 


11 ,300 


3,000 


83,700 


47,100 


30,100 


13,400 


3,250 


97,700 


54,900 


35,200 


15,600 


3,500 


112,700 


63,400 


40,600 


18,000 


3,750 


128,700 


72,400 


46,400 


20,600 


4,000 


145,900 


82,100 


52,500 


23,300 


4,250 


164,200 


92,400 


59,100 


26,300 


4,500 


183,400 


103,100 


66,000 


29,300 


4,750 


203,700 


114,600 


73,300 


32,600 


5,000 


225,200 


126,700 


81 ,100 


36,000 


5,250 


247,700 


139,400 


89,200 


39,600 


5,500 


271 ,200 


152,600 


97,700 


43,400 


5,750 


295,900 


166,500 


106,500 


47,400 


6,000 


greater 


greater 


115,800 


51 ,500 


6,250 






125,500 


55,700 


6,500 






135,500 


60,200 


6,750 






145,800 


64,800 


7,000 






156,700 


69,600 


7,250 






167,900 


74,600 


7,500 






179,400 


79,800 


7,750 






191 ,400 


85,100 


8,000 






greater 


greater 



*Fire flow not to exceed 6,000 gpm in one-story 
buildings not exceeding 16 feet in height. 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



3-44 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



BLOCK D: DETERMLNE BASE FLRE FLOW 



Select the correct GPM figure from Table 1 



TOTALS COLUMN 



(D) 
GPM 



BLOCK E: DETERMINE OCCUPANCY FACTOR ADJUSTMENT 

Step 1 : Select a high or low fire load TOT u 
factor up to 25% 



Step 2: Multiply (D) by this factor. 



Step 3: If HIGH RISK, add the amount to 
(D); if LOW RISK, subtract . 



NEW ADJUSTED TOTAL = 



GPM 

(E) 

GPM 



BLOCK F: DETERMINE EXPOSURE ADJUSTMENT 

Using the tables below, enter the 
separation and the adjustment for 
each of the building's four 
"faces." 



Separation Adjustment 
in Feet Range 



- 10 15-25% 

11 - 30 10-20% 

31-60 7 - 15% 

61-100 5-10% 



Expo- 
sure 



North 



East 



South 



West 



Sep. 
Feet 



Ml 



Total adjustment not more than 75% 



Multiply (E) by this percentage 
Add this amount to Line E. 



NEW ADJUSTED TOTAL 



TOTALS COLUMN 



(F) 
GPM 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



3-45 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



BLOCK G: TOTAL REQUIRED FIRE FLOW 

II If less than 500 GPM, enter 500 GPM 1 

11 If greater than 12,000 GPM, enter II 

II 12,000 GPM. 1 

\ If less than 2,500 GPM, round off H 

11 (E) to the nearest 250 GPM. K 

11 If greater than 2,500 GPM, round U 

K off (E) to the nearest 500 GPM. 11 

TOTAL REQUIRED FIRE FLOW (ROUNDED OFF) 



TOTALS COLUMN 



(G) 
GPM 



<«< Carry this final total to Block A, Line 3 >>>> 









NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



3-46 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS. A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



LIFE RISK MATRIX 





Exit Classification 


Protection 


Exterior 
exits 


Interior exits 
access corridors 


Inadequate 
exits 


Fully sprinklered AND fully 
covered by a detection 
system. 


very low 


very low 


low 


Fully sprinklered OR fully 
covered by a detection 
system. 


very low 


low 


medium 


Sprinklered exit corridors 
AND detectors in sleeping 
areas. 


very low 


low 


medium 


Detectors in sleeping areas 
only. 


medium 


high 


very high 


Manual fire alarm only. 


medium 


high 


very high 


No early warning system. 


medium 


very high 


very high 



1. In non- res ident ial occupancies if all the occupants are normally awake and 
able to exit without assistance, lower the life risk by one classification. 

2. Estimated number of total occupants in the target hazard: 

3. Estimated number of occupants in IMMEDIATE danger: 

4. Special factors affecting life risk: 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



3-47 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



FIRE RISK RATING SUMMARY FORM 



Occupancy 
Name 

Address 



Calculated by 



Classification 
F.M.A. 



TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION (Circle one) 
Fire Resistive Heavy Timber 
Non-combustible Wood Frame 



Ordinary 
Mixed 






Property Risk 


Initial attack: gpm 
Sustained attack: gpm 


Life Risk 


Degree of risk: 


Total occupants: 


Occ. in immediate danger: 




Community 
Consequences 


(Circle one) 
very very 
low low medium high high 



Special Risk Factors: 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



3-4! 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



STEMPLE TOWERS 



Occupancy & Construction Details 

Stemple Towers was constructed in 1977 as a dormitory. It 
is located across the street from the older dorm complex 
which includes Grace Hall. It is eight stories in height 
with 48 dorm rooms on each floor, each occupied by two stu- 
dents. There are three fully enclosed exit stairways and 
three elevators. 

The corridors are U-shaped, 380 feet in length, 10 feet 
wide with 10-feet ceilings. The floors are covered with 
carpet and the walls are finished with a vinyl wall cover- 
ing. Corridor ceilings are low density fiberboard accous- 
tic tile. The elevators open directly into the corridors 
and are adjacent to the lounge on each floor. There is no 
separation between the 800-square-f eet lounges and the cor- 
ridors. The lounge furniture includes large, comfortable 
couches and TV sets. The student room doors are solid core 
wood, 1-3/4 inches thick, with self-closers. 

A dry standpipe is installed in each stairway with a sepa- 
rate fire department connection on the outside of each 
stairway at ground level. There are 1-1/2 inch hose cabi- 
nets in each wing on every floor, supplied by the domestic 
water system and a 5-lb. multi-purpose dry chemical extin- 
guisher is also mounted in the cabinets. The basement is 
fully protected by automatic sprinklers. 

The fire alarm system includes manual pull stations at the 
stairway entrances on each floor. Heat detectors are in- 
stalled in the lounges and also activate the alarm bells. 
The alarms are monitored at the campus security office. 

The building is surrounded by parking lots and grass fields. 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 3-49 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



STEMPLE TOWERS 

CONCORD COLLEGE (1977) 




Stairs 



240' 



FIRE RESISTIVE 

8 STORIES 

48 ROOMS PER FLOOR 

2 STUDENTS PER ROOM 

CORRIDORS 10 FT. WIDE 

OPEN LOUNGE ON EACH FLOOR IS 800 SQ. FT. 



DORMITORY 

19,000 SQ. FT. PER FLOOR 
300 SQ. FT. PER ROOM 
CEILINGS 10 FT. HIGH 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



3-50 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



INITIAL ATTACK FIRE FLOW FORM 



Occupancy 



Largest open space: 



Dimensions of space: L: W: H: 

L x W x H 



GPM 



100 

Multiple areas 



Other open space 



Dimensions of space: L: W: 



Other open space 



Dimensions of space: L: W: 



Other open space 



Dimensions of space: L: W: 



L| x H] x W-| L2 x H£ x W£ 

+ + ... = GPM 

100 100 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 3-51 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



FIRE FLOW ESTIMATE FORM 



BLOCK A: BASIC INFORMATION 

Occupancy Name 

Address 



Classification 

F.M.A. 



Calculated by 



Est. F.F. 



GPM 



BLOCK B: DETERMINE TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION (Circle one) 
Fire Resistive Non- Combustible Heavy Timber 
Ordinary Wood Frame Mixed 



BLOCK C: DETERMINE EFFECTIVE AREA 



Largest floor area 



Add: a) 50% of all other floor areas 
except for fire resistive 
construction; 
OR 

b) 25% of two largest successive 
floor areas for fire resistive 
construction with vertical 
separations ; 

OR 

c) 50% of eight largest successive 
floors for fire resistive 
construction with unprotected 
vertical openings. 



TOTALS COLUMN 



(sq. ft.) 



(sq. ft.) 



(C) 

total 

sq.ft 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



3-53 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



TABLE J_: BASE FIRE FLOW 
Fire Area (in square feet) for Various Construction Types 



Base 


Fire 


Non- 


Ordinary* or 


Wood 


Fire Flow 


Resistive 


Combustible 


Heavy Timber 


Frame 


500 


3,300 


1,900 


1 ,200 


500 


750 


6,600 


3,700 


2,400 


1 ,100 


1 ,000 


10,900 


6,100 


3,900 


1,700 


1 ,250 


16,200 


9,100 


5,800 


2,600 


1 ,500 


22,700 


12,700 


8,200 


3,600 


1 ,750 


30,200 


17,000 


10,900 


4,800 


2,000 


38,700 


21 ,800 


13,900 


6,200 


2,250 


48,300 


27,200 


17,400 


7,700 


2,500 


59,000 


33,200 


21 ,300 


9,400 


2,750 


70,900 


39,700 


25,500 


11 ,300 


3,000 


83,700 


47,100 


30,100 


13,400 


3,250 


97,700 


54,900 


35,200 


15,600 


3,500 


112,700 


63,400 


40,600 


18,000 


3,750 


128,700 


72,400 


46,400 


20,600 


4,000 


145,900 


82,100 


52,500 


23,300 


4,250 


164,200 


92,400 


59,100 


26,300 


4,500 


183,400 


103,100 


66,000 


29,300 


4,750 


203,700 


114,600 


73,300 


32,600 


5,000 


225,200 


126,700 


81 ,100 


36,000 


5,250 


247,700 


139,400 


89,200 


39,600 


5,500 


271 ,200 


152,600 


97,700 


43,400 


5,750 


295,900 


166,500 


106,500 


47,400 


6,000 


greater 


greater 


115,800 


51 ,500 


6,250 






125,500 


55,700 


6,500 






135,500 


60,200 


6,750 






145,800 


64,800 


7,000 






156,700 


69,600 


7,250 






167,900 


74,600 


7,500 






179,400 


79,800 


7,750 






191 ,400 


85,100 


8,000 






greater 


greater 



*Fire flow not to exceed 6,000 gpm in one-story 
buildings not exceeding 16 feet in height. 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



3-54 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



BLOCK D: DETERMINE BASE FIRE FLOW 



Select the correct GPM figure from Table 1 



TOTALS COLUMN 



(D) 
GPM 



BLOCK E: DETERMINE OCCUPANCY FACTOR ADJUSTMENT 



Step 1 : Select a high or low fire load 
factor up to 25% 



Step 2: Multiply (D) by this factor, 



Step 3: If HIGH RISK, add the amount to 
(D); if LOW RISK, subtract. 



NEW ADJUSTED TOTAL = 



TOTALS COLUMN 



GPM 



(E) 
GPM 



BLOCK F: DETERMINE EXPOSURE ADJUSTMENT 

Using the tables below, enter the 
separation and the adjustment for 
each of the building's four 
"faces." 



Separation Adjustment 
in Feet Range 



- 10 15-25% 

11 - 30 10-20% 

31 - 60 7-15% 

61-100 5-10% 



Expo- 
sure 



North 



East 



South 



West 



Sep. 
Feet 



Adj 



Total adjustment not more than 75% 



Multiply (E) by this percentage 
Add this amount to Line E. 



NEW ADJUSTED TOTAL 



TOTALS COLUMN 



(F) 
GPM 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



3-55 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



BLOCK G: TOTAL REQUIRED FIRE FLOW 

II If less than 500 GPM, enter 500 GPM H 

II If greater than 12,000 GPM, enter 1 

I 12,000 GPM. 11 

H If less than 2,500 GPM, round off II 

II (E) to the nearest 250 GPM. II 

11 If greater than 2,500 GPM, round K 

11 off (E) to the nearest 500 GPM. 11 



TOTALS COLUMN 



(G) 
GPM 



TOTAL REQUIRED FIRE FLOW (ROUNDED OFF) = 

<«< Carry this final total to Block A, Line 3 >»> 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



3-56 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



LIFE RISK MATRIX 





Exit Classification 


Protection 


Exterior 
exits 


Interior exits 
access corridors 


Inadequate 
exits 


Fully sprinklered AND fully 
covered by a detection 
system. 


very low 


very low 


low 


Fully sprinklered OR fully 
covered by a detection 
system. 


very low 


low 


medium 


Sprinklered exit corridors 
AND detectors in sleeping 
areas. 


very low 


low 


medium 


Detectors in sleeping areas 
only. 


medium 


high 


very high 


Manual fire alarm only. 


medium 


high 


very high 


No early warning system. 


medium 


very high 


very high 



1. In non- res ident ial occupancies if all the occupants are normally awake and 
able to exit without assistance, lower the life risk by one classification. 

2. Estimated number of total occupants in the target hazard: 

3. Estimated number of occupants in IMMEDIATE danger: 

4. Special factors affecting life risk: 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



3-57 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



FIRE RISK RATING SUMMARY FORM 



Occupancy 
Name 

Address 



Classification 

F.M.A. 



Calculated by 



TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION (Circle one) 
Fire Resistive Heavy Timber 
Non-combustible Wood Frame 



Ordinary 
Mixed 






Property Risk 


Initial attack: gpm 
Sustained attack: gpm 


Life Risk 


Degree of risk: 


Total occupants: 


Occ. in immediate danger: 




Community 
Consequences 


(Circle one) 
very very 
low low medium high high 



Special Risk Factors: 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



3-58 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



SMALL GROUP ACTIVITY 

For the next 45 minutes, you will be applying the informa- 
tion and tools you have just learned. 

This activity deals with three scenarios. Your instructor 
will assign one to your group. 

Following each scenario are the needed worksheets. 

You will do four things. 

1. Calculate the needed fire flow for the initial attack. 

2. Calculate the needed fire flow for the sustained attack. 

3. Estimate life risk. 

4. Estimate community consequences. 

When you have reached some consensus, place the information 
on the Fire Risk Summary Form and select one spokesperson 
to give a report to the class when called on by the 
instructor. 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 3-59 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



BEARPAW SHOE COMPANY 

The Bearpaw Shoe Company has been one of the largest indus- 
tries in your area for over 75 years. Its complex of two- 
and three- story buildings is crowded into the heart of the 
industrial area, bordering on the central business district. 
Within the last 10 years, shoe production has declined sig- 
nificantly and parts of the complex have been sold and 
rented to a variety of other companies. 

In addition to the shoe company, parts of the complex are 
now occupied by a manufacturer of Styrofoam cups, a tire 
distributor, a swimming pool supply company, a cabinet 
shop, a furniture wholesaler, and a truck body manufacturer. 
Each of these occupants has a portion of the complex ranging 
from a whole wing to part of a floor. 

The buildings were constructed in the early 1900 's, some of 
heavy timber and some of fire-resistive construction. All 
of the buildings have automatic sprinklers, supplied by an 
elevated water tank and a steam-driven, 1,500-gpm fire pump. 
The steam for the fire pump comes from the shoe factory's 
main boilers that once ran continuously. Now they are shut 
down at night and on weekends and it takes the plant engi- 
neer 15 minutes to get them fired up again. There is no 
plant engineer on duty while the boilers are shut down. 

There is a system of yard hydrants connected to the private 
supply and to the public water system. The static pressure 
on the public system is 50 psi with 4500 gpm available at 
20 psi. 

The complex is separated from the buildings on Commercial 
Street by a 20-foot-wide alley. The three- and four-story 
buildings on Commercial Street contain a variety of stores 
and businesses, many with apartments on the upper floors. 

Over the years, the plant's sprinkler system and fire bri- 
gade have controlled numerous fires without serious damage. 
The fire brigade was disbanded five years ago and since that 
time the public fire department has responded to a .few 
small fires, each controlled by one sprinkler head. 

Your fire inspector has just returned from making an inspec- 
tion of the property and informed you about the lack of 
steam for the boiler at night and on weekends. He is also 
concerned about the adequacy of the fixed fire protection 
in view of the highly combustible nature of the items now 
stored in the building. The elevated storage tank is cur- 
rently empty due to severe leaks which developed when the 
water froze last winter. 

NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 
3-60 NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRALNING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Bearpaw Shoe Co. 



US 30 




Commercial St. 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



3-61 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



BEARPAW SHOE CO. 

(FLOOR PLAN) 



ENCLOSED BRIDGE 
AT 2ND FLOOR 



D 

II 

120' J 



OPEN 
STAIRS 



FREIGHT 
ELEVATOR 



ENCLOSED 
STAIRS 

/ 



it 



k 



OFFICE 



40' 



50' 



METAL SHED 
20' HIGH 
USED FOR 
TIRE STORAGE 



80' 



3 STORIES 9600 sq, ft, PER FLOOR 

HEAVY TIMBER CONSTRUCTION 

INCLUDES ONE OPEN STAIRWAY, ONE ENCLOSED STAIRWAY 

OPEN FREIGHT ELEVATOR 

CEILINGS ARE 14' HIGH 



occupancy; 



GROUND FLOOR - TIRES 

SECOND FLOOR - STYROFOAM CUPS 

THIRD FLOOR - FURNITURE 

NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



3-62 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



INITIAL ATTACK FIRE FLOW FORM 



Occupancy : 



Largest open space: 



Dimensions of space: L: W: 

L x W x H 



GPM 



100 

Multiple areas 
Other open space 



Dimensions of space: L: 



Other open space 



Dimensions of space: L: W: 



Other open space 



Dimensions of space: L: W: H: 



L-| x H-| x W-| L2 x H2 x W2 

+ + ... = GPM 

100 100 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 3-63 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



FIRE FLOW ESTIMATE FORM 



BLOCK A: BASIC INFORMATION 

Occupancy Name 

Address 



Classification 

F.M.A. 



Calculated by_ 



Est. F.F, 



GPM 



BLOCK B: DETERMINE TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION (Circle one) 
Fire Resistive Non- Combustible Heavy Timber 
Ordinary Wood Frame Mixed 



BLOCK C: DETERMINE EFFECTIVE AREA 
Largest floor area 



Add: a) 50% of all other floor areas 
except for fire resistive 
construction; 
OR 

b) 25% of two largest successive 
floor areas for fire resistive 
construction with vertical 
separations; 

OR 

c) 50% of eight largest successive 
floors for fire resistive 
construction with unprotected 
vertical openings. 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



TOTALS COLUMN 



(sq. ft.) 



(sq. ft.) 



(C) 

total 
sq. ft 



====== 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



3-65 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



TABLE 1_: BASE FIRE FLOW 
Fire Area (in square feet) for Various Construction Types 



Base 


Fire 


Non- 


Ordinary* or 


Wood 


Fire Flow 


Resistive 


Combustible 


Heavy Timber 


Frame 


500 


3,300 


1,900 


1 ,200 


500 


750 


6,600 


3,700 


2,400 


1 ,100 


1 ,000 


10,900 


6,100 


3,900 


1 ,700 


1 ,250 


16,200 


9,100 


5,800 


2,600 


1 ,500 


22,700 


12,700 


8,200 


3,600 


1 ,750 


30,200 


17,000 


10,900 


4,800 


2,000 


38,700 


21 ,800 


13,900 


6,200 


2,250 


48,300 


27,200 


17,400 


7,700 


2,500 


59,000 


33,200 


21 ,300 


9,400 


2,750 


70,900 


39,700 


25,500 


11 ,300 


3,000 


83,700 


47,100 


30,100 


13,400 


3,250 


97,700 


54,900 


35,200 


15,600 


3,500 


112,700 


63,400 


40,600 


18,000 


3,750 


128,700 


72,400 


46,400 


20,600 


4,000 


145,900 


82,100 


52,500 


23,300 


4,250 


164,200 


92,400 


59,100 


26,300 


4,500 


183,400 


103,100 


66,000 


29,300 


4,750 


203,700 


114,600 


73,300 


32,600 


5,000 


225,200 


126,700 


81 ,100 


36,000 


5,250 


247,700 


139,400 


89,200 


39,600 


5,500 


271 ,200 


152,600 


97,700 


43,400 


5,750 


295,900 


166,500 


106,500 


47,400 


6,000 


greater 


greater 


115,800 


51 ,500 


6,250 






125,500 


55,700 


6,500 






135,500 


60,200 


6,750 






145,800 


64,800 


7,000 






156,700 


69,600 


7,250 






167,900 


74,600 


7,500 






179,400 


79,800 


7,750 






191 ,400 


85,100 


8,000 






greater 


greater 



*Fire flow not to exceed 6,000 gpm in one-story 
buildings not exceeding 16 feet in height. 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



3-66 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



BLOCK D: DETERMINE BASE FIRE FLOW 

Select the correct GPM figure from Table 1 . 



TOTALS COLUMN 



(D) 
GPM 



BLOCK E: DETERMINE OCCUPANCY FACTOR ADJUSTMENT 

Step 1: Select a high or low fire load TOT; ^ XjLUMm 
factor up to 25% 



Step 2: Multiply (D) by this factor, 



Step 3: If HIGH RISK, add the amount to 
(D); if LOW RISK, subtract. 



NEW ADJUSTED TOTAL 



GPM 



'(E) 
GPM 



BLOCK F: DETERMINE EXPOSURE ADJUSTMENT 

Using the tables below, enter the 
separation and the adjustment for 
each of the building's four 
"faces." 



Separation Adjustment 
in Feet Range 



- 10 15-25% 

11-30 10 - 20% 

31-60 7 - 15% 

61-100 5-10% 



Expo- 
sure 



North 



East 



South 



West 



Sep. 
Feet 



Adj 



Total adjustment not more than 75- 



Multiply (E) by this percentage 
Add this amount to Line E. 



NEW ADJUSTED TOTAL = 



TOTALS COLUMN 



(F) 
GPM 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



3-67 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



BLOCK G: TOTAL REQUIRED FIRE FLOW 
11 If less than 500 GPM, enter 500 GPM II 

11 If greater than 12,000 GPM, enter 11 

I 12,000 GPM. 11 

II If less than 2,500 GPM, round off II 
If (E) to the nearest 250 GPM. 11 

11 If greater than 2,500 GPM, round 11 
II off (E) to the nearest 500 GPM. 11 

TOTAL REQUIRED FIRE FLOW (ROUNDED OFF) 



TOTALS COLUMN 



(G) 

GPM 



<«< Carry this final total to Block A, Line 3 >>>> 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEM 



3-' 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTE 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



LIFE RISK MATRIX 





Exit Classification 


Protection 


Exterior 
exits 


Interior exits 
access corridors 


Inadequate 
exits 


Fully sprinklered AND fully 
covered by a detection 
system. 


very low 


very low 


low 


Fully sprinklered OR fully 
covered by a detection 
system. 


very low 


low 


medium 


Sprinklered exit corridors 
AND detectors in sleeping 
areas. 


very low 


low 


medium 


Detectors in sleeping areas 
only. 


medium 


high 


very high 


Manual fire alarm only. 


medium 


high 


very high 


No early warning system. 


medium 


very high 


very high 



1. In non- res ident ial occupancies if all the occupants are normally awake and 
able to exit without assistance, lower the life risk by one classification. 

2. Estimated number of total occupants in the target hazard: 

3. Estimated number of occupants in IMMEDIATE danger: 

4. Special factors affecting life risk: 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



3-69 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



FIRE RISK RATING SUMMARY FORM 



Occupancy 
Name 

Address 



Calculated by 



Classification 

F.M.A. 



TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION (Circle one) 

Fire Resistive Heavy Timber Ordinary 
Non-combustible Wood Frame Mixed 



Property Risk 


Initial attack: gpm 
Sustained attack: gpm 


Life Risk 


Degree of risk: 


Total occupants: 


Occ. in immediate danger: 




Community 
Consequences 


(Circle one) 
very very 
low low medium high high 



Special Risk Factors: 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



3-70 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



ACADEMY MOTEL 



Several major loss-of-life fires in motels have received 
heavy exposure in the news media over the last five years. 
A five-death fire in a city 200 miles away has finally 
caught the attention of your mayor, who calls to ask about 
the vulnerability of your community to this type of dis- 
aster. You have been waiting for this opportunity to get 
your foot in the door for more than six months when you 
attended a National Fire Academy course, Fire Risk Anal- 
ysis: A Systems Approach." 

At your first meeting with the mayor, you show her the risk 
analysis you have done on the motels in your community and 
and the assessment of your current suppression capability. 
She gives you the green light to propose changes to the fire 
code and to discuss your capability at a public meeting. 
You have 30 days to prepare. 

Your assessment of the risk is reinforced by nationally re- 
ported experience with these types of buildings and a few 
"close calls" locally. While you have not had any hotel or 
motel deaths in your community lately, you have had one or 
two fires each year that could have been much worse with 
just slightly different circumstances. 

The Academy Motel is a two-story enclosed-corridor motel 
which belongs to a major chain. The motel has eight sections 
linked around a central courtyard which features a swimming 
pool and recreation area. It is representative of several 
motels near the interstate highway. 

The construction is brick outer walls with wood partitions 
and floor/roof assemblies. The sections are divided by fire 
walls, with 1 -1 /2-hour-rated fire doors dividing the inter- 
ior corridors at the fire walls. The doors are held open 
with 180°F fusible links. Each wing has at least one open 
stairway joining the first and second floors. You are aware 
of several cases where the fire walls have been penetrated 
in the attic spaces to run air ducts or electrical lines 
between sections. 

The rooms open onto the central corridors from both sides, 
with an average of 60 rooms between fire walls (30 on each 
floor). The room doors are solid-core wood and many of 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 

NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 3-71 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



them have spring- loaded hinges that make them self-closing. 
All of the corridor floors and stairs are covered with carpet 
which extends 36 inches up the walls. The remainder of the 
walls and the ceilings are painted. 

This chain has installed battery-operated smoke alarms in 
all their rooms. There is no alarm system in the corridors. 
The only fire fighting equipment required by code is extin- 
guishers mounted every 150 feet in the corridors. Some of 
the wings have pressurized water units and some have 2A 
10BC dry chemical units. 

Soft-drink machines and ice machines are installed under 
the stairs on the ground floor. Roll-away beds and maids' 
carts are often found in the corridors, although a small 
storage room is provided for these items on each floor in 
each section. 

These buildings were in compliance with the building code 
at the time of their construction. Changes in the code 
since that time required that corridor separation doors and 
room doors be self-closing and be kept closed at all times. 
Fire alarms and emergency lighting are now required in all 
exit corridors, and each room must have a smoke detector. 
These requirements are not retroactive. 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



3-72 NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Motel 



Hydrant 



335' 



-I 



A-Wing 



Hydrant 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



3-73 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Open 
Stairway 




Open 
Stairway 



Motel 
D-Wing 



Fire Wall 



G-Wing 



120' 




B-Wing | 
I 



Fire Wall 



Brick, Wood-joist Construction 
11,750 SQ. FT. Per Floor 
33T0 SQ. FT. Per Rom (22' x 15) 
Corridors 6 FT. Wide; 8 FT. High 




C-Wing 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



3-74 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING" CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



INITIAL ATTACK FIRE FLOW FORM 



Occupancy : 



Largest open space: 



Dimensions of space: L: W: H: 

L x W x H 



GPM 



100 

Multiple areas 



Other open space 



Dimensions of space: L: W: 



Other open space 



Dimensions of space: L: W: 



Other open space 



Dimensions of space: L: W: 



L] x H] x Wi L2 x H2 x W2 

+ + ... - GPM 

100 100 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 3 " 7 5 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



FIRE FLOW ESTIMATE FORM 



BLOCK A: BASIC INFORMATION 

Occupancy Name 

Address 



Classification 
F.M.A. 



Calculated by 



Est. F.F. 



GPM 



BLOCK B: DETERMINE TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION (Circle one) 
Fire Resistive Non- Combustible Heavy Timber 

Mixed 



Ordinary 



Wood Frame 



BLOCK C: DETERMINE EFFECTIVE AREA 
Largest floor area 



Add: a) 50% of all other floor areas 
except for fire resistive 
construction; 
OR 

b) 25% of two largest successive 
floor areas for fire resistive 
construction with vertical 
separations; 

OR 

c) 50% of eight largest successive 
floors for fire resistive 
construction with unprotected 
vertical openings. 



TOTALS COLUMN 



(sq. ft.) 



(sq.ft.) 



(C) 

total 

sq.ft. 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



3-77 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



TABLE ]_: BASE FIRE FLOW 
Fire Area (in square feet) for Various Construction Types 



Base 


Fire 


Non- 


Ordinary* or 


Wood 


Fire Flow 


Resistive 


Combustible 


Heavy Timber 


Frame 


500 


3,300 


1,900 


1 ,200 


500 


750 


6,600 


3,700 


2,400 


1,100 


1 ,000 


10,900 


6,100 


3,900 


1,700 


1 ,250 


16,200 


9,100 


5,800 


2,600 


1 ,500 


22,700 


12,700 


8,200 


3,600 


1 ,750 


30,200 


17,000 


10,900 


4,800 


2,000 


38,700 


21 ,800 


13,900 


6,200 


2,250 


48,300 


27,200 


17,400 


7,700 


2,500 


59,000 


33,200 


21 ,300 


9,400 


2,750 


70,900 


39,700 


25,500 


11 ,300 


3,000 


83,700 


47,100 


30,100 


13,400 


3,250 


97,700 


54,900 


35,200 


15,600 


3,500 


112,700 


63,400 


40,600 


18,000 


3,750 


128,700 


72,400 


46,400 


20,600 


4,000 


145,900 


82,100 


52,500 


23,300 


4,250 


164,200 


92,400 


59,100 


26,300 


4,500 


183,400 


103,100 


66,000 


29,300 


4,750 


203,700 


114,600 


73,300 


32,600 


5,000 


225,200 


126,700 


81 ,100 


36,000 


5,250 


247,700 


139,400 


89,200 


39,600 


5,500 


271 ,200 


152,600 


97,700 


43,400 


5,750 


295,900 


166,500 


106,500 


47,400 


6,000 


greater 


greater 


115,800 


51 ,500 


6,250 






125,500 


55,700 


6,500 






135,500 


60,200 


6,750 






145,800 


64,800 


7,000 






156,700 


69,600 


7,250 






167,900 


74,600 


7,500 






179,400 


79,800 


7,750 






191 ,400 


85,100 


8,000 






greater 


greater 



*Fire flow not to exceed 6,000 gpm in one-story 
buildings not exceeding 16 feet in height. 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



3-78 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



BLOCK D: DETERMINE BASE FIRE FLOW 



Select the correct GPM figure from Table 1 



TOTALS COLUMN 



(D) 
GPM 



BLOCK E: DETERMINE OCCUPANCY FACTOR ADJUSTMENT 

Step 1: Select a high or low fire load TOT; 
factor up to 25% 



Step 2: Multiply (D) by this factor, 



Step 3: If HIGH RISK, add the amount to 
(D); if LOW RISK, subtract . 



NEW ADJUSTED TOTAL = 



GPM 

"(E) 
GPM 



BLOCK F: DETERMINE EXPOSURE ADJUSTMENT 

Using the tables below, enter the 
separation and the adjustment for 
each of the building's four 
"faces." 



Separation Adjustment 
in Feet Range 



- 10 15-25% 

11 - 30 10-20% 

31 - 60 7-15% 

61 - 100 5 - 10% 



Expo- 
sure 



North 



East 



South 



West 



Sep. 
Feet 



Adj 



Total adjustment not more than 75% 



Multiply (E) by this percentage, 
Add this amount to Line E. 



NEW ADJUSTED TOTAL 



TOTALS COLUMN 



(F) 
GPM 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



3-79 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



BLOCK G: TOTAL REQUIRED FIRE FLOW 

11 If less than 500 GPM, enter 500 GPM II 

II If greater than 12,000 GPM, enter 1 

11 12,000 GPM. 11 

11 If less than 2,500 GPM, round off II 

II (E) to the nearest 250 GPM. 11 

If If greater than 2,500 GPM, round 11 

11 off (E) to the nearest 500 GPM. 11 



TOTALS COLUMN 



(G) 
GPM 



TOTAL REQUIRED FIRE FLOW (ROUNDED OFF) = 

<<<< Carry this final total to Block A, Line 3 >»> 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



3-CO 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



LIFE RISK MATRIX 





Exit Classification 


Protection 


Exterior 
exits 


Interior exits 
access corridors 


Inadequate 
exits 


Fully sprinklered AND fully 
covered by a detection 

system. 


very low 


very low 


low 


Fully sprinklered OR fully 
covered by a detection 
system. 


very low 


low 


medium 


Sprinklered exit corridors 
AND detectors in sleeping 
areas . 


very low 


low 


medium 


Detectors in sleeping areas 
only. 


medium 


high 


very high 


Manual fire alarm only. 


medium 


high 


very high 


No early warning system. 


medium 


very high 


very high 



1. In non- res ident ial occupancies if all the occupants are normally awake and 
able to exit without assistance, lower the life risk by one classification. 

2. Estimated number of total occupants in the target hazard: 

3. Estimated number of occupants in IMMEDIATE danger: 

4. Special factors affecting life risk: 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



3-81 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



FIRE RISK RATING SUMMARY FORM 



Occupancy 
Name 

Address 



Calculated by 



Classification 
F.M.A. 



TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION (Circle one) 
Fire Resistive Heavy Timber 
Non-combustible Wood Frame 



Ordinary 
Mixed 



Property Risk 


Initial attack: gpm 
Sustained attack: gpm 


Life Risk 


Degree of risk: 


Total occupants: 


Occ. in immediate danger: 




Community 
Consequences 


(Circle one) 
very very 
low low medium high high 



: = = = = = = = = = = 



Special Risk Factors 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



3-82 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



FORT HILLIS HOTEL 



You have just received a telephone call from the manager of 
the Fort Hillis Hotel, complaining about the three pieces 
of fire apparatus which have been parked in the driveway 
for the last three hours. As you try to explain the fire 
risk analysis program and sympathize about how this looks 
to potential guests, you review in your mind the basic 
characteristics of the building. You have been concerned 
about the life loss potential in this hotel for as long as 
you can remember and always wondered what you might be able 
to do about it, someday. 

Built in 1911, the Fort Hillis is a 10-story, fire resis- 
tive edifice. The building has a massive steel and con- 
crete structure covered with granite facing and ornate mar- 
ble details. A landmark in the downtown area, it is on the 
National Registry of Historic Sites. 

There are 30 guest rooms per floor on the second through 
eighth floors. The ground floor and mezzanine include 
several meeting rooms-, a ballroom, and two restaurants, all 
opening onto the main lobby. The west end of the ninth 
floor contains a 3 , 500-square-foot ballroom. The remainder 
of the ninth floor contains the hotel offices and service 
areas, while four luxury suites occupy the of the 10th 
floor. 

The guest rooms average 480 square feet each, although they 
vary from 280 to over 800 square feet on each floor. The 
four luxury suites are each over 1,600 square feet. 

The corridors on each floor form a W-shaped pattern with a 
stairway on the end of each of three wings. These stairways 
were added in the early 1960's and replaced old fire es- 
capes. The stairs are enclosed by concrete on the outside 
walls and separated from the corridors by wired-glass par- 
tition and door assemblies. The doors are held open with 
fusible links. 

There are three elevators at the center of the building, 
and facing the elevator bank is a grand stairway extending 
from the lobby to the tenth floor. This stairway has mar- 
ble steps, polished brass handrails and polished oak panel- 
ing along its length. This stairway is not separated from 
the corridors. 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 

NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 3-33 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



The doors to the rooms are carved wood, without closers. 
When new locks were installed recently, the hotel paid more 
than $75 per door to match the antique faceplates around 
the locks. Each room has a transom. 

The basement, which is not sprinklered, contains a 3,000- 
square-foot disco with an occupant capacity of 250. This is 
reached through an open stairway from the hotel lobby, al- 
though one exit door leads directly to a narrow outside 
stairway to the rear alley. 

In 1968, three hotel guests died in a fire on the fifth 
floor. The fire started in a guest room and extended to the 
corridor. Twenty additional guests, four hotel employees, 
and 11 firefighters were overcome by smoke. Many rescues 
were made with ladders as smoke filled most of the building, 
but firefighters were successful in holding the fire to the 
room and a section of the corridor. At that time, officials 
praised the newly installed manual fire alarm system for 
alerting guests to the danger and promptly summoning fire- 
fighters through, its direct connection to the fire depart- 
ment. 

The fire was extinguished by one 1-1/2- inch line from a 
hose cabinet and a 2-1/2-inch line from the dry standpipe 
in one of the exit stairway towers. The standpipes had been 
installed, along with the stairways and alarm system, dur- 
ing a major renovation project during 1960-1962. 

There was no building code at the time of the original con- 
struction. The renovation of 1962 brought it into compli- 
ance with the code in effect at that time, with several va- 
riances allowed to preserve the historic character of the 
building. 

The hotel faces a wide boulevard, but is separated from 
large office buildings on each side by 30-foot-wide drive- 
ways . 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



3-84 NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



EXPOSURE 



FORT HILLIS HOTEL 

(BLOCK PLAN) 
THREE-LEVEL PARKING GARAGE 



STANDPIPES 



- 30' - ; 




30' ~ 



EXPOSURE 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



3-85 



FIRERISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Fort Hi II is Hotel 

(Typical Floor) 



Stair 



a ir 



Service 



32' 



11 



□uy 



\ / 



15 



Service 



30 



OB 



Service 



23 



22 



16 



18 



FIRE RESISTIVE CONSTRUCTION 



TEN STORIES 
CEILINGS 12 FEET 



25,680 SQ. FT. PER FLOOR 
480 SQ. FT. AVERAGE ROOM 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



3-86 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



INITIAL ATTACK FIRE FLOW FORM 



Occupancy: 



Largest open space: 



Dimensions of space: L: 
L x W x H 



100 



GPM 



Multiple areas 



Other open space 



Dimensions of space: L: 



W: 



Other open space 



Dimensions of space: L: 



Other open space 



Dimensions of space: L: 



W: 



L-| x H-| x W-| L2 x H2 x W2 

+ + 



100 



100 



GPM 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



3-87 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



FIRE FLOW ESTIMATE FORM 



BLOCK A: BASIC INFORMATION 

Occupancy Name 

Address 



Calculated by_ 



Classification 

F.M.A. 



Est. F.F. 



GPM 



BLOCK B: DETERMINE TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION (Circle one) 
Fire Resistive Non- Combustible Heavy Timber 
Ordinary Wood Frame Mixed 



BLOCK C: DETERMINE EFFECTIVE AREA 



Largest floor area 



Add: a) 50% of all other floor areas 
except for fire resistive 
construction; 
OR 

b) 25% of two largest successive 
floor areas for fire resistive 
construction with vertical 
separations; 

OR 

c) 50% of eight largest successive 
floors for fire resistive 
construction with unprotected 
vertical openings. 



TOTALS COLUMN 



(sq. ft.) 



(sq. ft.) 



(C) 

total 

sq.ft 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



3-89 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



TABLE 1_: BASE FIRE FLOW 
Fire Area (in square feet) for Various Construction Types 



Base 


Fire 


Non- 


Ordinary* or 


Wood 


Fire Flow 


Resistive 


Combustible 


Heavy Timber 


Frame 


500 


3,300 


1 ,900 


1 ,200 


500 


750 


6,600 


3,700 


2,400 


1 ,100 


1 ,000 


10,900 


6,100 


3,900 


1 ,700 


1 ,250 


16,200 


9,100 


5,800 


2,600 


1 ,500 


22,700 


12,700 


8,200 


3,600 


1 ,750 


30,200 


17,000 


10,900 


4,800 


2,000 


38,700 


21 ,800 


13,900 


6,200 


2,250 


48,300 


27,200 


17,400 


7,700 


2,500 


59,000 


33,200 


21 ,300 


9,400 


2,750 


70,900 


39,700 


25,500 


11 ,300 


3,000 


83,700 


47,100 


30,100 


13,400 


3,250 


97,700 


54,900 


35,200 


15,600 


3,500 


112,700 


63,400 


40,600 


18,000 


3,750 


128,700 


72,400 


46,400 


20,600 


4,000 


145,900 


82,100 


52,500 


23,300 


4,250 


164,200 


92,400 


59,100 


26,300 


4,500 


183,400 


103,100 


66,000 


29,300 


4,750 


203,700 


114,600 


73,300 


32,600 


5,000 


225,200 


126,700 


81 ,100 


36,000 


5,250 


247,700 


139,400 


89,200 


39,600 


5,500 


271 ,200 


152,600 


97,700 


43,400 


5,750 


295,900 


166,500 


106,500 


47,400 


6,000 


greater 


greater 


115,800 


51 ,500 


6,250 






125,500 


55,700 


6,500 






135,500 


60,200 


6,750 






145,800 


64,800 


7,000 






156,700 


69,600 


7,250 






167,900 


74,600 


7,500 






179,400 


79,800 


7,750 






191 ,400 


85,100 


8,000 






greater 


greater 



*Fire flow not to exceed 6,000 gpm in one-story 
buildings not exceeding 16 feet in height. 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



3-90 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



BLOCK D: DETERMINE BASE FIRE FLOW 



Select the correct GPM figure from Table 1 



TOTALS COLUMN 



(D) 

GPM 



BLOCK E: DETERMINE OCCUPANCY FACTOR ADJUSTMENT 



Step 1 : Select a high or low fire load 
factor up to 25% 



Step 2: Multiply (D) by this factor, 



Step 3: If HIGH RISK, add the amount to 
(D); if LOW RISK, subtract. 



NEW ADJUSTED TOTAL = 



TOTALS COLUMN 



GPM 



(E) 
GPM 



BLOCK F: DETERMINE EXPOSURE ADJUSTMENT 

Using the tables below, enter the 
separation and the adjustment for 
each of the building's four 
"faces." 



Separation Adjustment 
in Feet Range 



- 10 15-25% 

11 - 30 10-20% 

31-60 7 - 15% 

61-100 5-10% 



Expo- 
sure 



North 



East 
South 



West 



Sep. 
Feet 



Adj 



Total adjustment not more than 75% 



Multiply (E) by this percentage 
Add this amount to Line E. 



NEW ADJUSTED TOTAL 



TOTALS COLUMN 



(F) 

GPM 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



3-91 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



: = = = = = : 



: = = = ==r 



BLOCK G: TOTAL REQUIRED FIRE FLOW 

K If less than 500 GPM, enter 500 GPM % 

11 If greater than 12,000 GPM, enter 11 

II 12,000 GPM. 11 

11 If less than 2,500 GPM, round off II 

II (E) to the nearest 250 GPM. 1 

11 If greater than 2,500 GPM, round 11 

1 off (E) to the nearest 500 GPM. 1 



TOTALS COLUMN 



(G) 
GPM 



TOTAL REQUIRED FIRE FLOW (ROUNDED OFF) = 

<«< Carry this final total to Block A, Line 3 >»> 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



3-92 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



LIFE RISK MATRIX 





Exit Classification 


Protection 


Exterior 
exits 


Interior exits 
access corridors 


Inadequate 
exits 


Fully sprinklered AND fully 
covered by a detection 
system. 


very low 


very low 


low 


Fully sprinklered OR fully 
covered by a detection 
system. 


very low 


low 


medium 


Sprinklered exit corridors 
AND detectors in sleeping 
areas. 


very low 


low 


medium 


Detectors in sleeping areas 
only. 


mediun 


high 


very high 


Manual fire alarm only. 


medium 


high 


very high 


No early warning system. 


medium 


very high 


very high 



1. In non- res ident ial occupancies if all the occupants are normally awake and 
able to exit without assistance, lower the life risk by one classification. 

2. Estimated number of total occupants in the target hazard: 

3. Estimated number of occupants in IMMEDIATE danger: 

4. Special factors affecting life risk: 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



3-93 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



FIRE RISK RATING SUMMARY FORM 



Occupancy 
Name 

Address 



Calculated by 



Classification 
F.M.A. 



TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION (Circle one) 
Fire Resistive Heavy Timber 
Non-combustible Wood Frame 



Ordinary 
Mixed 



Property Risk 


Initial attack: gpm 
Sustained attack: gpm 


Life Risk 


Degree of risk: 


Total occupants: 


Occ. in immediate danger: 


Community 
Consequences 


(Circle one) 
very very 
low low medium high high 



Special Risk Factors: 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



3-9 4 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



RIVERSIDE BOARDING HOME 

Along the river bank in your community are stately old 
homes, built 60 to 70 years. These two- and three-story 
homes are mostly wood frame construction with 2,500 to 
5,000 square feet in floor area on each level. They line 
both sides of a tree-shaded street, some with their backs 
to the river. 

In the last 20 or 30 years, the original families moved 
away, selling out to people who made them into apartments 
and rooming houses. Gradually, this changed the complexion 
of the neighborhood. 

Within the last few years, many owners began to contract 
with the state Department of Social Welfare to take in the 
residents of some institutions for the handicapped on a 
residential custodial care basis. These homes must be in- 
spected and certified by the state, which has pre-empted 
local jurisdiction over these state-contracted boarding 
homes. Local officials are not even informed when these 
facilities are licensed, and generally find out about them 
when they respond to emergency medical service calls. 

The state requirements call for at least one single-station 
smoke alarm in the hall on each floor plus a manual pull 
station that is part of the local alarm. Heat detectors 
must be in each room. A solid-core wood door must be in- 
stalled in each stairway between floor level, and there 
must be at least two stairways. 

There may be up to tour occupants in each room. Most of 
them have obvious physical or mental handicaps. A single 
home may contain 30 to 50 occupants. The home is required 
to have at least one responsible person on duty at all 
times and fire drills must be held at least every 90 days. 
State inspectors check the homes annually to renew their 
permits and require the fire alarm system and extinguishers 
to be serviced each year. The telephone number of the local 
fire department must be posted adjacent to each telephone. 

SITUATION 

The captain from Engine 3 returned from an EMS call at one 
of the homes and wrote a letter to the editor of the local 
newspaper proclaiming that "a grave hazard exists and nobody 
seems to care." Since the morning edition was delivered, 
you have been deluged with telephone calls asking if the 
allegations are true and what you propose to do about them. 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 3 " 95 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



RIVERSIDE BOARDING HOME 



BLOCK PLAN 




NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



3-9 6 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



OCCUPANCY AND CONSTRUCTION 

The Riverside Boarding Home, where Engine 3 responded, is 
typical of several homes in the area. It is two stories in 
height and constructed of wood frame with stucco convering 
on the exterior. The area of each floor is 4,750 square 
feet. There are 49 occupants, 35 of whom sleep on the se- 
cond floor and 14 on the ground floor. Most are physically 
or emotionally handicapped to some extent and would require 
assistance to evacuate. 

The building has an attic used for storage, which is reached 
via an interior stairway from the second floor. The pitched 
roof is covered with wood shingles as are the neighboring 
homes. The separations are 15 feet to the home on the 
right and 30 feet to the home on the left. There is no 
basement. 

The interior stairway has the. required separation door in- 
stalled at the landing between the first and second levels, 
held shut by a ** spring closer. The exterior stairway is 
wood and passes directly in front of the kitchen windows. 
Each sleeping room has at least one window suitable for 
ladder rescue and the front rooms have access to a large 
balcony. The construction contains numerous void spaces 
which would allow a fire to spread rapidly throughout the 
interior. 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 3-97 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



RIVERSIDE BOARDING HOME 

(1ST FLOOR) |i 



I \ 



/ 



LINEN 
SERVICE 



STORAGE 



/ 



KITCHEN 



L/_J 



/l 



/ 



DINING 
AREA 



LOUNGE 






50*- 



WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTION ATTIC USED FOR STORAGE 

MOST ROOMS 15 FT. X 15 FT. CORRIDORS 5 FT. WIDE 

TWO STORIES NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



3-99 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



RIVERSIDE BOARDING HOME 

(2ND FLOOR) 





II 


111 11 


EXTERI 




•+ 


— 5CT|- 


/ 






1 1 


3 




3 






3 










/ 




/ 




3 


\ 




/ 


2 


















\ 






2 


\ 




\ 






3 


95' 




















\ 




\ 






2 






/ 


UP 




2 


3 


\ 




muim 
iiniiii 


\ 


2 








J 


1 


DOWN 




\ 




i ' 


3 








4 




BALCONY 



Numbers indicate 
sleeping occupancy 
of each room 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



3-99 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



INITIAL ATTACK FIRE FLOW FORM 



Occupancy: 



Largest open space: 



Dimensions of space: L: 
L x W x H 



GPM 



100 

Multiple areas 



Other open space 



Dimensions of space: L: W: H: 



Other open space 



Dimensions of space: L: W: 



Other open space 



Dimensions of space: L: W: 

L-| x H-j x W-| L2 x H2 x W2 



+ ... = GPM 



100 100 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



3-100 NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



FIRE FLOW ESTIMATE FORM 



BLOCK A: BASIC INFORMATION 

Occupancy Name 

Address 



Calculated by_ 



Classification 

F.M.A. 

Est. F.F. 



GPM 



BLOCK B: DETERMINE TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION (Circle one) 
Fire Resistive Non- Combustible Heavy Timber 
Ordinary Wood Frame Mixed 



BLOCK C: DETERMINE EFFECTIVE AREA 



Largest floor area 



Add: a) 50% of all other floor areas 
except for fire resistive 
construction; 
OR 

b) 25% of two largest successive 
floor areas for fire resistive 
construction with vertical 
separations; 

OR 

c) 50% of eight largest successive 
floors for fire resistive 
construction with unprotected 
vertical openings. 



TOTALS COLUMN 



(sq. ft.) 



(sq. ft.) 



(C) 

total 

sq.ft 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



3-101 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



TABLE 1_: BASE FIRE FLOW 
Fire Area (in square feet) for Various Construction Types 



Base 


Fire 


Non- 


Ordinary* or 


Wood 


Fire Flow 


Resistive 


Combustible 


Heavy Timber 


Frame 


500 


3,300 


1,900 


1 ,200 


500 


750 


6,600 


3,700 


2,400 


1,100 


1 ,000 


10,900 


6,100 


3,900 


1,700 


1 ,250 


16,200 


9,100 


5,800 


2,600 


1 ,500 


22,700 


12,700 


8,200 


3,600 


1 ,750 


30,200 


17,000 


10,900 


4,800 


2,000 


38,700 


21 ,800 


13,900 


6,200 


2,250 


48,300 


27,200 


17,400 


7,700 


2,500 


59,000 


33,200 


21 ,300 


9,400 


2,750 


70,900 


39,700 


25,500 


11 ,300 


3,000 


83,700 


47,100 


30,100 


13,400 


3,250 


97,700 


54,900 


35,200 


15,600 


3,500 


112,700 


63,400 


40,600 


18,000 


3,750 


128,700 


72,400 


46,400 


20,600 


4,000 


145,900 


82,100 


52,500 


23,300 


4,250 


164,200 


92,400 


59,100 


26,300 


4,500 


183,400 


103,100 


66,000 


29,300 


4,750 


203,700 


114,600 


73,300 


32,600 


5,000 


225,200 


126,700 


81 ,100 


36,000 


5,250 


247,700 


139,400 


89,200 


39,600 


5,500 


271 ,200 


152,600 


97,700 


43,400 


5,750 


295,900 


166,500 


106,500 


47,400 


6,000 


greater 


greater 


115,800 


51 ,500 


6,250 






125,500 


55,700 


6,500 






135,500 


60,200 


6,750 






145,800 


64,800 


7,000 






156,700 


69,600 


7,250 






167,900 


74,600 


7,500 






179,400 


79,800 


7,750 






191 ,400 


85,100 


8,000 






greater 


greater 



*Fire flow not to exceed 6,000 gpm in one-story 
buildings not exceeding 16 feet in height. 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



3-1D2 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



BLOCK D: DETERMINE BASE FIRE FLOW 



Select the correct GPM figure from Table 1 



TOTALS COLUMN 



(D) 
GPM 



BLOCK E: DETERMINE OCCUPANCY FACTOR ADJUSTMENT 

Step 1: Select a high or low fire load TOT, 
factor up to 25% 



Step 2: Multiply (D) by this factor, 



Step 3: If HIGH RISK, add the amount to 
(D); if LOW RISK, subtract. 



NEW ADJUSTED TOTAL = 



GPM 

(E) 
GPM 



BLOCK F: DETERMINE EXPOSURE ADJUSTMENT 

Using the tables below, enter the 
separation and the adjustment for 
each of the building's four 
"faces." 



Separation Adjustment 
in Feet Range 



- 10 15-25% 

11 - 30 10-20% 

31-60 7 - 15% 

61-100 5-10% 



Expo- 
sure 



North 



East 
South 



West 



Sep. 
Feet 



Adj 



Total adjustment not more than 75% 



Multiply (E) by this percentage, 
Add this amount to Line E. 



NEW ADJUSTED TOTAL = 



TOTALS COLUMN 



(F) 
GPM 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



3-103 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



BLOCK G: TOTAL REQUIRED FIRE FLOW 

K If less than 500 GPM, enter 500 GPM II 

11 If greater than 12,000 GPM, enter II 

II 12,000 GPM. 11 

II If less than 2,500 GPM, round off II 

11 (E) to the nearest 250 GPM. 11 

11 If greater than 2,500 GPM, round 11 

11 off (E) to the nearest 500 GPM. II 



TOTALS COLUMN 



(G) 
GPM 



TOTAL REQUIRED FIRE FLOW (ROUNDED OFF) = 

<«< Carry this final total to Block A, Line 3 >»> 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



3-104 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



LIFE RISK MATRIX 





Exit Classification 


Protection 


Exterior 
exits 


Interior exits 
access corridors 


Inadequate 
exits 


Fully sprinklered AND fully 
covered by a detection 
system. 


very low 


very low 


low 


Fully sprinklered OR fully 
covered by a detection 
system. 


very low 


low 


medium 


Sprinklered exit corridors 
AND detectors in sleeping 
areas. 


very low 


low 


medium 


Detectors in sleeping areas 
only. 


medium 


high 


very high 


Manual fire alarm only. 


medium 


high 


very high 


No early warning system. 


medium 


very high 


very high 



1. In non- res ident ial occupancies if all the occupants are normally awake and 
able to exit without assistance, lower the life risk by one classification. 

2. Estimated number of total occupants in the target hazard: 

3. Estimated number of occupants in IMMEDIATE danger: 

4. Special factors affecting life risk: 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



3-105 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



FIRE RISK RATING SUMMARY FORM 



Occupancy 
Name 

Address 



Calculated by 



Classification 
F.M.A. 



TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION (Circle one) 

Fire Resistive Heavy Timber Ordinary 
Non-combustible Wood Frame Mixed 



Property Risk 



Initial attack: 
Sustained attack 



gpm 
gpra 



Life Risk 



Degree of risk: 
Total occupants: 



Occ. in immediate danger: 



Community 
Consequence.* 



(Circle one) 
very very 

low low medium high high 



Special Risk Factors: 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



3-106 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Unit III: The Community at Risk 

I. Risk 

A. Definition 



B. Categories 



C. Determining Risk 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 3-107 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



D. Sources of risk 



II. Target Hazard 



III. Risk Modifiers 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



3-108 NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



IV. Fixed Fire Protection Systems 
A. Active Systems 



B. Passive Systems 



C. Building Construction 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



3-0.09 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



V. Fire Management Areas 
A. Definition 



B. Criteria for creating FMA 1 s 



C. Benefits 



D. Selection of target hazards 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



3-110 NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



VI. Determining Needed Fire Flow 
A. Value 



B. Initial Attack Calculation 



VII. Determining Needed Fire Flow (Sustained Attack) 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 3-111 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



VII. Estimating Life Risk 
A. Complex issue 



B. Other considerations 



C. Management tool 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



3-112 NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



VIII. Evaluating Community Consequences 



IX. Value of Rating Form 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 3-113 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



UNIT IV 

FIRE SUPPRESSION 

CAPABILITY 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Unit IV: Fire Suppression Capability 



Objective 

The participants will be able to identify fire suppression 
capability using specific measurement tools. 



Fire In this unit, we will focus on the fire fighting 
Protection aspect of fire protection. We will examine the 
fire suppression capability of the public fire 
protection forces serving the community. For the 
purposes of this discussion, we will consider 
fixed protection systems as efforts to lower the 
risk at a particular location, hopefully reducing 
the demand for public fire suppression capability. 
We will consider fire suppression capability to 
include all of the resources at the disposal of 
the fire department to deal with an actual fire 
situation. 



Fire Fire suppression is one element of fire pro- 
Suppression tection. Suppression includes all actions and 
activities that are designed to control or extin- 
guish fires once they have been ignited. Fixed 
protection systems (i.e., automatic sprinklers, 
dry chemical systems) are designed to react to 
fires that break out at a specific location. The 
fire suppression role of the fire department is 
to deliver mobile fire fighting capability to any 
location where a fire breaks out. 

Suppression capability is an expression of how 
much fire fighting power can be put into action 
when there is a fire. It includes the amount of 
apparatus, equipment, and personnel available; 
the time needed to respond and place equipment 
in action; the water supply; the application of 
tactics and strategy; the level of training; and 
all of the components that add up to effective 
fireground operations. 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 

NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 4-3 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Our process of estimating fire suppression capa- 
bility will provide us with a system to judge the 
level of resources available to the fire depart- 
ment and how well the fire department makes use 
of those resources. We are interested in how much 
actual fire fighting capability the fire depart- 
ment can deliver and put into action when there 
is a fire to combat. This may include a wide 
variety of systems and methods, depending on 
local circumstances, organizations, and resource- 
fulness . 

This fire suppression capability should reflect 
the identified level of risk in the community. A 
community that has a low-risk profile probably 
needs less suppression capability than a community 
with high risk. The comparison should be made on 
a case-by-case basis, looking at the risk and the 
suppression capability available to respond to 
that risk. 

The fire department's role may be interpreted as 
filling the gap between the total risk and what- 
ever protection has been provided by other means 
to deal with that risk. The fire department is 
often the last line of defense between what is 
expected and what actually happens. 



Variety Different circumstances and operating methods 
of lead to a variety of different approaches to fire 
Approaches suppression. Fire departments range in size from 
large organizations with thousands of full-time 
career firefighters to small volunteer depart- 
ments with as few as a dozen members. The exami- 
nation of fire suppression capability should not 
be a comparison of these different approaches to 
each other (this is simply not realistic and a 
waste of time) , but should concentrate on deter- 
mining whether or not the suppression capability 
provided is adequate or appropriate to deal with 
the risk. 

Because of the variety of risks that must be 
addressed by firefighters in different jurisdic- 
tions or in different locations within the same 
jurisdiction, suppression capability should be 
measured with respect to the identified hazards 
under consideration. 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 
4-4 NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



This requires an assessment of the suppression 
capability needed to deal with a potential fire 
situation in a particular location and a compari- 
son of the available suppression capability with 
respect to that demand. The demand level comes 
from the assessment of risk in Unit III. We will 
use that demand in our assessment of suppression 
capability. 

GPM-Personnel Gallons-per-minute (gpm) delivery capability is a 
Attack method of expressing suppression capability in 
Assessment terms of gallons of water per minute that can be 
effectively applied by the fire fighting forces. 
This allows a direct comparison with the gpm de- 
mand expressions that may be calculated for tar- 
get hazards. 

Starting with a calculated fire flow demand for 
the location under consideration (obtained from 
Unit II: Risk Analysis), this method measures how 
well the fire fighting force can deliver the cal- 
culated fire flow and other functions. 

The gpm delivery capability for a particular fire 
department or a particular location is most 
accurately determined by observing actual fire- 
ground operations or full-scale drill activities. 
The fire department's actual capability is influ- 
enced by numerous factors, including (but not 
Limited to) response time and distance, water 
supply, apparatus type, condition and arrangement, 
the number of personnel responding, their train- 
ing and physical condition, the command system, 
standard operating procedures, and the number and 
type of support functions which are required at a 
particular scene. 

The attack assessment is based on two separate 
evaluations of fireground operations. Initial 
attack evaluation examines the fire department's 
ability to respond quickly and place an effective 
offensive attack in operation. Sustained attack 
evaluation is based on the fire department's 
ability to launch a heavy defensive fireground 
operation. In- both- cases , the evaluation is based 
on an effective gpm flow rate and other fireground 
functions. 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 4 _ 5 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Time- The following chart illustrates the growth of 
Temperature fire produced temperatures during the course of a 

Curve structural test fire. These time/ temperature re- 
lationships are based on field experiments and 
actual fires. The principal point to note is the 
rapid initial build-up and slow, steady climb af- 
ter that. This curve illustrates fire growth from 
a point approaching flashover. 

(Ref: NFPA Handbook, 14th Ed., P. 6-80) 



B 1200 





































































































/ 


f^ 




























/ 
































/ 


















































Determining Points 
for Curve 
1000"Fat 5 Mm. 
1300"F at 10 Mm. 
1S50"F at 30 Mm 
1700 "F at 1 Hr 
1850"F at 2 Hr 
2000 U F at 4 Hr 
2300 "F at 8 Hr 






f 

























































































































Time in Hrs 

At 10 minutes a temperature of 1,300° F can be ex- 
pected to exist at the ceiling. Flashover, the 
point at which fire gases and all combustible 
surfaces of a room blast into flame at once, can 
be expected to occur between 800° F and 1,000° F. 
As can be seen on the chart, these conditions can 
be expected to occur within 10 to 15 minutes af- 
ter ignition. One of the objectives of initial 
a-ttack rs to control the fire before ■ flashover 
occurs, whenever possible. 



GPM/Mode Of all the restraints placed on the fire incident 

Relationship manager, the most basic is the amount of fire 

which can be attacked with the gallons per minute 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



4-6 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



flow available. If the available flow is equal to 
is equal to or greater than the need, an aggres- 
sive offense can be mounted. When the flow re- 
quirements exceed that which can be provided, a 
defensive posture must be assumed. 

G. P.M. MODE RELATIONSHIP 




I 1 l I l 1 1 1 1 1 1 



TIME 



In the diagram above, we see that from the instant 
of ignition to final extinguishment a certain "rate 
of water application can control the fire. This 
volume of water varies with the progress of the 
fire. As the fire growth curve increases, the 
amount of water required increases. If a vertical 
line is drawn from the time line until it inter- 
sects the fire growth curve, the flow rate which 
will control the fire at that line can be read on 
the vertical index. 

If upon arrival it is discovered that a flow of 
750 gpm is required and the available flow is 
only 500 gpm, it is obvious that a defensive 
mode is indicated. Additional resources must be 
summoned if an offensive mode is desired. Be- 
cause the fire has not reached its maximum in- 
tensity, it will continue to grow and require 
more and more water. 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



4^7 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Unfortunately, the relationships on this graph 
are not fixed, but vary to some extent with each 
fire. The values depend on such factors as the 
type and amount of fuel, heat release rate, 
oxygen supply and the size and shape of the fire 
area. 

The fire manager must recognize this and consider 
it when additional resources are requested. If 
at the time of arrival a deficit of 250 gpm ex- 
isted, a request for an additional 250 gpm will 
still require a defensive mode because the fire 
will have continued to grow and will require more 
than 750 gpm by the time the additional lines are 
in place. 



Initial The measurement of suppression capability must 
Attack include both initial attack operations that 
And attempt to quickly deal with marginal situations 
Sustained before they get out of control, and sustained 
Operations firefighting operations that can be assembled and 
placed into operation against major fires. The 
measurements must include not only the ability 
to apply water to the fire but also the ability 
to engage in search and rescue, forcible entry, 
ventilation, preservation of property, and addi- 
tional support activities as required by the 
situation. 

Time is a critical factor in evaluating suppres- 
sion capability since a fire can be expected to 
grow larger until the suppression capability over- 
comes the fire. The longer it takes to deliver 
effective suppression capability, the more gpm 
flow should be required to control it. 

A relatively small initial attack flow may be able 
to control a fire before it requires a much lar- 
ger flow if the initial attack is provided quick- 
ly. If the fire exceeds the effective initial 
attack capability, the fire can be expected to 
grow until the suppression capability catches up 
and overcomes it. Both factors are important in 
estimating the effectiveness of fireground opera- 
tions and most fire departments attempt to pro- 
vide effective offensive and defensive suppres- 
sion capability. 



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4-8 NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Initial Initial attack capability should be considered in 

Attack--10 terras of a reflex action by the fire department. 

Minutes When an alarm is received, the fire department 

should be capable of responding quickly and with 

adequate equipment and personnel to place a 

reasonable fire attack in action without delay. 

For study purposes, we will evaluate initial 
attack 10 minutes after the fire department is 
notified of the alarm. This is independant of the 
actual ignition time, which is unknown. This 10- 
minute time frame allows five minutes (more or 
less) to receive the alarm and dispatch companies 
and for the first units to travel to the scene. 
This would provide an additional five minutes 
(more or less) to place the initial attack equip- 
ment and personnel in operation on the fireground. 

If the first units take more than five minutes to 
reach the scene, this simply leaves less time for 
setup prior to the evaluation. The 10-minute as- 
sessment examines how much suppression capability 
can be placed in operation within the first cri- 
tical minutes after an alarm is received. If the 
initial attack cannot be made within 10 minutes, 
then increase the anticipated size of the fire. 

Interior Initial attack capability should be measured 
Offensive based on the ability to place effective handlines 
Tactics in operation in interior positions, assuming that 
the initial attack team will engage in interior 
offensive fire fighting, attempting to gain con- 
trol of the fire before it exceeds their capabi- 
lity. This requires the assignment of personnel 
to activities that are not strictly involved in 
water application, such as search and rescue, 
forcible entry, and ventilation. The necessary 
commitment to these activities depends on the 
type and complexity of the target hazard being 
used as the object of consideration. 

The initial attack is geared toward offensive 
fire fighting tactics, attempting to rapidly gain 
control of the fire before it grows too large. 

If the fire has already surpassed this stage, the 
initial attack force should be able to initiate 
some form of "holding action" until reinforce- 
ments arrive. 

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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Sustained Thirty minutes is used as the basic time frame 
Attack-- for measurement of the fire department's ability 
30 Minutes to provide the full gpm fire flow for a parti- 
cular location. This reflects a time that permits 
the initial attack force to arrive, begin opera- 
tions, call for reinforcements, and then allows 
time for the additional units to respond and get 
into action. In urban areas, this might allow for 
a heavy response of multiple-alarm companies; in 
rural areas, mutual-aid companies might not be 
able to travel the required distance in 30 min- 
utes. This is a simple reflection of reality, 
since a fire will normally continue to grow until 
the fire suppression force is strong enough to 
overcome it or until it burns out. 



Exterior In this case we will be considering fire suppres- 
Defensive sion capability in terms of an exterior defensive 
Strategy operation, designed to confine a "fully involved" 
fire to a limited area. 

The full gpm fire flow demand is based on maximum 
involvement of the fire building and normally 
calls for the application of master streams or 
large handlines. The application of large volumes 
of water is more feasible if apparatus and equip- 
ment are adequately set up for this type of opera- 
tion. Heavy gpm fire flow application requires an 
adequate and reliable water supply and the neces- 
sary deployment of apparatus and equipment to 
place large streams in effective operating posi- 
tions. 

The terra "sustained attack" means that defensive 
fire fighting operations may require the applica- 
tion of the full gpm fire flow for extended 
lengths of time. When a defensive operation is 
necessary, it is assumed that the fire building 
itself cannot be saved and the purpose of the 
attack is to protect the community from the fire. 

Offensive The evaluation of an initial interior offensive 
versus attack and an exterior defensive operation tests 

Defensive the ability of the fire department to handle two 
very different types of fireground action. While 
situations encountered under actual field condi- 
tions may not fall strictly into one category or 



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4-10 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



the other, this provides a reasonable basis of 
evaluation that can be used by most fire depart- 
ment * 




RESOURCE 
ADEQUACY 



RESOURCE 
IN- 
ADEQUACY 




OFFENSIVE 



OFFENSIVE/ 
DEFENSIVE 



DEFENSIVE/ 
OFFENSIVE 



DEFENSIVE 



We will operate under the basic assumption that a 
fire department is capable of providing a strong 
initial attack force and that an adequate sus- 
tained defensive attack is probably capable of 
performing the various combinations of activities 
that may be required on the fireground. (A fur- 
ther level of analysis could be directed at the 
specific needs of a specifically identified tar- 
get hazard.) 



Determining Initial attack and sustained attack capabilities 
Suppression can be evaluated in order to determine gpm avail- 
Capability ability. In each category, the result is an as- 
sumed effective fire flow application rate in 
gallons per minute. 



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4-11 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



The risk analysis for various target hazards pro- 
vided gpm demand calculations for each rated lo- 
cation. The calculated suppression capability and 
the gpm demand calculated for the risk can be com- 
pared for both initial attack and sustained at- 
tack. Providing a separate evaluation in each ca- 
tegory allows attention to be directed specifi- 
cally where a strength or weakness is detected. 

The best method of evaluating suppression capa- 
bility is by conducting full-scale evaluation 
exercises or by observing actual fire fighting 
operations. The persons performing the evaluation 
should make every effort to reflect actual re- 
sponse times and operational methods that would 
be used on the fireground. This may require the 
development of a script detailing the arrival 
times of different companies and the assignments 
they will be expected to perform upon arrival. 

When full-scale simulation exercises are not feas- 
ible, the evaluators must estimate the capabili- 
ties of the suppression forces. This may involve 
writing a "tactical deployment script" around the 
expected personnel and equipment, taking into 
account their expected arrival sequence and the 
evaluator's best estimate of their capabilities. 
This should be verified by some basic field exer- 
cises, whenever possible. 



Evaluation The evaluation of initial attack capability is 
of Initial best accomplished by having a full, initial alarm 
Attack assignment perform these evolutions in a realist- 
Capability ic setting, like a training academy drill yard. 
Time must be factored into the problem by allow- 
ing companies to begin action after a time equi- 
valent to their response time to the assumed lo- 
cation. Hoselines should be laid, connected, and 
charged, while personnel are assigned to perform 
all of the required functions. At the 10-minute 
point, all action should be stopped and evaluated. 

The evaluation is based on gallons per minute ef- 
fectively applied to combat the fire within 10 
minutes after the alarm is received. Since effec- 
tive, initial attack fire fighting requires more 
than the application of water on the fire, addi- 
tional assignments and tasks are identified that 



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4-12 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Occupancy 
Address 



ATTACK ASSESSMENT FORM 



Initial Attack IX 1 
Sustained Attack J ! 





COMPANY or UNIT 
(Identity and Number of Personnel) 


TOTALS 






















LINES 




















GPM 





















Personnel to \ I j j ' 

I operate lines | I j I | ! j Mil 

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =5 = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = : 

I Pump I I I I I 

I operators | ! j j I j I I I I 

I Search & I j I I ! I II 

I Rescue ! j ] j j ! | I I I I 

(Ventilation ! ! | | j j j Nil 
I Support I I ! | I Mil 

= =: = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = :=:= = = = = :=:=: = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = := = = = = 

[ Command j | | | i Mil 

==================================================================== 

Other : ! ! ! ! I 



Can you control the fire? 



Can you rescue the occupants? 



What is the predictable outcome? 



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NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



must be fulfilled by the initial attack force. 
Failure to assign personnel and equipment to nec- 
essary tasks results in a diminished attack cap- 
ability. 

• Hose lines --Attack lines must be stretched 200 
feet from apparatus and placed in operation by 
two personnel with full protective clothing, 
using SCBA. Both personnel must stay with the 
line to provide for mobility, 

a. 1-1/2-inch lines--100 gpm 

b. 1-3/4- inch lines--150 gpm 

c. 2-inch lines--200 gpm 

d. 2-1/2-inch lines--250 gpm 
(requires three personnel) 

Attack lines must be supported by an uninter- 
rupted water supply. A pump operator must 
be assigned for each pumper supplying water, 
unless automatic controls are provided. 

• Estimating Search and Rescue Requirements 
The commitment which will be necessary for 
search and rescue depends primarily on an 
assessment of the number of occupants, the de- 
gree of immediate danger to them and the level 
of assistance they will need to safely exit 
from the building. The necessary information 
to make this assessment was obtained in the 
life risk analysis section. 

Search and rescue personnel should always be 
assigned in teams of two. A minimum of one 
team should always be assigned to any structure 
where occupants are anticipated. Additional 
teams should be assigned to meet the following 
criteria. 

Residential occupancies: One team for every 

2,000 square feet. 

Business, mercantile, One team for every 
storage and industrial: 4,000 square feet. 

Public assembly: One team for every 

100 occupants (as- 
suming adequate 
exits are provided) . 

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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Health care and occupancies 
where occupants require 
assistance: 



One team per five 
occupants . 



Search and rescue teams must be assigned to 
areas where the occupants are in immediate 
danger during initial attack. Occupants in 
other areas with a less urgent need for rescue 
will not be a factor in initial attack assess- 
ment. This will generally restrict calcula- 
tions to areas immediately subject to smoke 
and heat. 

If ladders or other special assistance are 
required to facilitate rescue, the estimate 
should account for the necessary personnel and 
equipment. 






1 . A, 

or B 

or C 

or D, 



2,000 


4,000 


100 



Search and Rescue Estimate 
sq. ft. = team. 1 



sq. ft. 



occupants = 



occupants = 



teams 



teams 



teams 



Go to #2 



teams x 2 personnel per team 



personnel 






:s= = = = = = = ==: 



3. Special 
Equipment 
Requirements 



Personnel required to operate 



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4-15 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



• Support Functions --At least one firefighter 
must be assigned to perform forcible entry, 
utility control, and related support functions 
for each handline placed in operation. 

• Ventilation - -At least two personnel must be 
assigned to perform ventilation ahead of ini- 
tial attack. When roof-top ventilation is in- 
dicated, these personnel must be able to reach 
the roof (via ladders) and have primary venti- 
lation accomplished within the 10-minute time 
frame. 

• Command --At least one individual must be as- 
signed as the fireground commander to direct 
operations. This person should not be engaged 
in any other fire fighting functions. 



An effective initial attack of 150 gpm may be 
reasonable for some locations, such as small 
single-family dwellings. For multi-story occu- 
pancies, an initial attack of 350 or 400 gpm may 
be required. Very few fire departments can pro- 
vide more than 500 gpm as an initial attack with- 
in a 10-minute time period. The evaluation must 
reflect the nature of the hazard and the conse- 
quences of an ineffective initial attack. 

An inadequate initial attack infers that the fire 
will probably grow to fully involve the defined 
fire area, requiring a sustained attack at the 
calculated fire flow rate to control the situation. 

There is a significant possibility that the fire 
may have already surpassed the capability of a 
strong initial attack by the time firefighters 
arrive. Whatever the circumstances, we must as- 
sume that the fire could potentially reach the 
"full involvement" stage. Strong initial attack 
reduces the probability that the fire will reach 
this stage and/or buys time to provide for rescue 
and evacuation. 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



4 _ 16 NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS. A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Evaluating The objective of full, sustained-attack strategy 

Sustained is to deliver the maximum fire attack possible in 

Attack a defensive configuration, utilizing master 

Capability and large handlines. This assumes total involve- 
ment of the fire building (or buildings) with all 
fire department efforts directed toward contain- 
ing and controlling the flames to prevent further 
spread. The 30-minute time frame is selected to 
provide a reasonable amount of time for rein- 
forcements to respond, after the initial assign- 
ment, and to be placed in action. 

This strategy is dependent upon a reliable water 
supply to sustain a high volume flow for extended 
periods. It also requires the deployment of per- 
sonnel and equipment for their maximum delivery 
capability. Due to the logistics involved, it may 
not be feasible to conduct a large-scale exercise 
to test the full gpm fire flow capability. 

It may be necessary to judge the water supply ca- 
pacity through standard test methods and to judge 
fire department capability on the performance of 
representative companies. Records of major fires 
that have occurred in the past may be helpful irl 
making this determination. 

Full gpm fire flow assumes that all efforts at a 
fire will be directed toward developing a high 
volume suppression effort. In real situations, 
however, major commitments may be made to search 
and rescue or other functions that prove to be 
more critical than water application at the 
particular incident. 

Since it is unlikely that any one incident would 
call for maximum effort in all facets of fire 
fighting at the same time, maximum gpm fire flow 
capability is taken as a representative activity 
to evaluate fireground operational capability. 

In some cases, the student may want to measure the 
fire department's capability in a different type 
of scenario (i.e., rescue capability at a nursing 
home or the ability to support interior high-rise 
fire fighting operations) . These decisions are 
highly subjective and may be utilized by the stu- 
dents according to their local circumstances. 



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NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 4-17 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Procedure for Estimation of Sustained Attack Fire 
Flow 

1 . Evaluate the water supply available through 
public mains and hydrants, drafting sources, 
other storage supplies, and/or tanker shuttles 
that can be placed in operation within 30 
minutes. The fire department cannot deliver 
more water than is readily available. 

This flow should be available for at least 60 
minutes and, preferably, on a continuing 
basis. 

2. Utilizing the maximum firefighting resources 
(including mutual aid, automatic aid, re- 
serves, etc.) that can respond and be placed 
in action within 30 minutes, calculate the 
maximum gpm flow that can be applied with 
master stream devices and handlines. Water 
supply volume must be available from Step 1 . 

3. A fireground command system and communi- 
cations must be in place to facilitate co- 
ordinated operations. The evaluation must be 
based on a logical strategic deployment of 
resources around the assumed target hazard- - 
not simply an exercise in throwing water up 
in the air. 

4. The deployment of personnel and equipment 
should be plotted on a fireground map, taking 
into account personnel and equipment assign- 
ments, capabilities, response times, and set- 
up times. The objective is to deliver the 
greatest possible gpm flow within 30 minutes. 

5. In the evaluation, the need for specialized 
equipment should be considered (aerial de- 
vices, foam equipment, etc.). Where these 
are needed and not available, an obvious 
deficiency is pointed out to those making 
evaluation. 



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4_18 NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



ATTACK ASSESSMENT FORM 



Occupancy 
Address 



Initial Attack j 
Sustained Attack \)(\ 





COMPANY or UNIT 
(Identity and Number of Personnel) 


TOTALS 






















LINES 




















GPM 





















Personnel to j I | | I I ! j 

I operate lines | | \ j j J j I ! ! i 

|Pump | I I I I I I II 

I operators j ] j j ] | ' I ! ! I 

I Search & ! I I I I I I Mil 

I Rescue \ j \ j | | | I I I I 

= = = = = = = = = =s = s= = = = = := = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = :=== = = := = := = = = :=:=: = = = = - l '= = = = 

|Ventilation | j | | j j I II 

I Support | | j | | j | |||! 

I Command j | | | | | | I I I 

I Other I ! I ! Ill 



Can you control the fire? 



Can 


you 


rescue 


the 


OCCU] 


Dants? 






What 


is 


the 


pr 


edic 


table 


outcome? 







NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



4-19 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



A "fully involved" situation would suggest that 
all of the contents would be destroyed by the 
fire and any remaining occupants would be lost. 
Depending on the construction, an adequate sus- 
tained attack could possibly "save" the structure. 
In some cases, the entire structure and contents 
might simply be written off as unsalvageable when 
the fire has reached this stage. The protection 
of exposures might be the only significant fire- 
ground priority. 

The ability of the fire department to provide a 
sustained attack equal to the calculated fire 
flow demand for the hazard indicates that the 
fire should be successfully confined, whether or 
not the target hazard itself is totally destroyed. 
If the target hazard is totally isolated from 
exposures, it may not make any difference whether 
or not the calculated fire flow can be delivered. 

If all of the occupants are out, how important is 
it to save the building? Once the target hazard 
is lost, the important considerations are the 
exposures. The ability to provide the calculated 
fire flow is significant only as it relates to 
the consequences of not providing it. 



Between A great deal of very significant fireground 
Initial activity takes place between the extremes of 
Attack and initial attack and the maximum flow capability of 
Sustained sustained attack. The fire department reinforces 
Attack the initial attack by attempting to limit the 
Assessments spread of the fire before it reaches "full in- 
volvement." These two extremes are used simply as 
benchmarks, examining a fire department's suppres- 
sion capability in two different configurations, 
which suggest effectiveness under varying circum- 
stances. A thorough evaluation should consider 
the anticipated fire growth within a target hazard 
to project how quickly the fire may develop from 
an initial attack situation to a fully defensive 
situation, and whether or not it could be control- 
led at an intermediate stage. 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



4-20 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Inferences The evaluation of initial attack capability and 
From sustained attack capability gives an indication 

Evaluation of how well the fire suppression forces are pre- 
pared to deal with the target hazards that they 
protect. A serious deficiency in either category 
should identify the potential need for improve- 
ments. This may direct responsible officers to 
consider improvements in equipment, staffing, 
operating procedures, or other factors that could 
improve performance. It could also identify weak- 
nesses in the other factors in the total system. 
Generally, this process is valuable in identi- 
fying weaknesses in the fire department' s ability 
to deal with predictable situations in the exist- 
ing environment. These may also lead to different 
strategies that could reduce the hazard level in 
the community. These concepts are discussed in 
the next unit. 

The evaluation of suppression capability should 
be weighed in relation to the nature of the risk, 
in addition to the gpm fire flow demand calcula- 
tions. The evaluation of fire suppression capa- 
bility can provide a measure of how well the fire 
department is prepared to engage in effective 
fireground operations. While this is highly de-^ 
pendent upon the resource levels of a department 
in terms of personnel, equipment and response 
times, it also reflects on the training and 
standard operating procedures employed. Adjust- 
ments in training and procedures may substantial- 
ly improve performance. 

NFPA A standard evaluation method for initial attack 
1410 capabilities presented is NFPA Standard 1410 — 
In i t i a L Fire Attack. This standard focuses on 
the ability to deliver 400 gpm with two attack 
lines and a larger back-up line within a reasonable 
time. The water application capability is an 
important aspect of initial fireground operations, 
but should be considered in relation to the need 
for search and rescue, ventilation, forcible 
entry, and other support functions that must be 
carried out simultaneously. The need to perform 
these necessary functions compromises the ability 
to place attack hoselines in operation when per- 
sonnel resources on the - fireground are limited. 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 

NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 4 " 21 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



The evaluation method in NFPA 1410 may be used as 
a starting point in estimating the 10-minute 
initial attack capability of a fire department, 
with adjustments to allow for these additional 
necessary functions. The personnel required to 
perform these other functions must be in addition 
to those used for placing hoselines in action (or 
they must be subtracted from the number of person- 
nel available for working with hoselines) . This 
provides an evaluation measure in terms of gpm, 
which can be effectively applied, while simul- 
taneously providing fireground command, search 
and rescue, ventilation, forcible entry, and 
support functions with the initial attack force. 

The ability to apply heavy flow rate fire attack 
with master stream appliances and large handlines 
is similarly related to equipment, procedures, 
training, personnel available, and water supply. 

Training Good procedures and regular training should be 
Needed directed to maximize the capability of the avail- 
able manpower and equipment. While the evaluation 
results may point to obviously needed adjustments 
in resources, the most effective utilization of 
available resources may provide a significant 
improvement in total firefighting capability. 

The training function should focus on all areas 
of fireground operations, considering changes in 
equipment and resource levels as well as training 
and procedures. When evaluating the current capa- 
bility of the fire suppression forces, attention 
should be directed to the maximization of capa- 
bilities at the available resource levels, in 
addition to the impact of changing resource lev- 
els . 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



4-22 NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



CONCORD COLLEGE 



Concord College sits on a beautiful campus, 2 miles from 
the center of town. Its 500-acre campus is considered a 
showplace of American college architecture today. The cam- 
pus buildings range in age from three to 80 years and are 
kept in elegant condition by the college's high endowments, 
generous alumni and steep tuition rates. 

Almost 3,600 students live in the dormitories on campus. 
These dorms range from an eight-story fire-resistive building 
constructed in 1977 to a series of three-story edifices 
constructed in the 1920' s. Most of the buildings are two 
to four stories in height. 

Classroom and administrative buildings on campus are of 
similar vintage and construction as the dorms. The fronts 
of the buildings are dominated by white columns, and the 
backs of most buildings feature traditional fire escapes. 
Automatic sprinklers have been installed in the basements 
of a few of tfre larger buildings. The buildings erected 
since 1968 have dry standpipes in the stairways. The 
only fire protection equipment in most areas is pressu- 
rized water extinguishers and 1-1/2-inch hose cabinets. 

The campus is served by an extension of the town's water 
system. An 8-inch line feeds a loop around the campus 
and hydrants are conveniently located. The water supply 
was recently tested at 2,375 gpm. 

The campus is patrolled at night by a security force of 
three roving personnel and one supervisor. 



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NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 4-23 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



GRACE HALL 



Occupancy & Construction Details 

Grace Hall was constructed in 1927. It is three stories in 
height with 36 domitory rooms per floor. Each dorm room is 
occupied by two students. There are three other very simi- 
lar buildings adjacent to Grace Hall in the resident area 
of the campus. 

The basic construction of the building is ordinary (brick- 
wood joisted) and each floor features a long L-shaped cor- 
ridor with rooms on both sides. The corridors are 10 feet 
wide and total 266 feet in length on each floor. The dorm 
rooms average 228 square feet and there are additional 
spaces on each floor for a small lounge, storage rooms and 
bathrooms. The total area is 13,034 square feet per floor 
with 10-feet-high ceilings. 

The two interior stairways were open until 10 years ago 
when wire-glass wall and door assemblies were installed to 
separate them from the corridors. These doors are often 
wedged open by the students to improve ventilation and most 
of the transoms are kept open. There are two exterior fire 
escapes, accessible through the bathroom windows. A manual 
fire alarm system was installed at the same time as the 
stairway partitions with pi£Ll stations at the ends and mid- 
dle of each corridor and alarm bells in each wing. The sys- 
tem is monitored at the campus security office. 

There are 1-1/2 inch hose cabinets in each section of the 
corridor, supplied by the domestic water system and pres- 
surized water extinguishers at the same locations. The full 
basement is sprinklered. 

The corridors contain a few pieces of furniture and vending 
machines. The floors are covered with carpet and the lower 
half of the walls is constructed of wood panel material. The 
upper parts of the walls and ceilings are plaster over wood 
lath. 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



A „' NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 

4-24 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 

GRACE HALL 

CONCORD COLLEGE 



5 Back Stairs Fir e Esc ape 
I / 162' 




LO LZ3 



ORDINARY CONSTRUCTION 
3 STORIES 

36 ROOMS PER FLOOR 
2 STUDENTS PER ROOM 
CORRIDORS 10 FT. WIDE 



DORMITORY 

13034 SQ. FT. PER FLOOR 

228 SQ. FT. PER ROOM 

CEILING 10 FT. HIGH 



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NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



4-25 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



HILLSIDE VOLUNTEER FIRE DEPARTMENT 



The Hillside Volunteer Fire Department protects a town of 
7,250 population and a surrounding area of 80 square miles 
that is mostly rural. Most of the 46 members of the depart- 
ment live and work within a one-mile radius of the fire 
station and respond to alarms from their radio pagers 
and/ or the siren on the firehouse. The average response on 
a structural alarm is 30 members and the first pumper is 
usually on the street in less than 2 minutes. Response 
time within the town averages less than 5 minutes--from 
the time the alarm is received until the first company is 
on the scene. 

The department operates two first-line 1,000-gpm pumpers 
with 750-gallon tanks; a 3,000-gallon tanker with a 500-gpm 
pump and a portable tank; a well-equipped rescue squad 
truck; and a mini-pumper. , Two older 750-gpm pumps are also 
kept in reserve. 

Mutual aid is available from Harbrook, 12 miles away, that 
can respond with a 1,000-gpm pumper and 4,000-gallon tanker, 
staffed by eight volunteers. woodside can respond from 16 
miles away with two 750-gpm pumpers and ten firefighters; 
while Fairwell responds from 19 miles away with a 1,250-gpra 
pumper, a 2,000-gallon tanker, and eight firefighters. The 
closest aerial device is the snorkel from Elmwood, 21 miles 
west, that has a 1, 500-gpm pump on board and usually comes 
with a crew of six volunteers. 

All of the departments are dispatched by the county com- 
munications center in Elmwood, and all units are equipped 
with common radio frequencies. The mutual aid system is 
well coordinated and has been in operation for over 30 
years. All of the volunteer firefighters are trained and 
certified by the state fire training organization, and 
all of the apparatus is in good condition. Most of the 
departments use 4- inch supply hose and. preconnected 
lines, and all apparatus are well equipped with hand tools 
and breathing apparatus. 

There is a water system in the town that can supply 3,500 
gpm for one hour, and hydrants are installed on a regular 
basis. Beyond the limits of the town, the water supply 
depends on tankers and drafting sources. An extension of 
the town's water system serves Concord College where a 
2,375 gpm supply is available. 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 
4 ~ 26 NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



INITIAL ATTACK DEPLOYMENT INFORMATION 

FOR HILLSIDE VOLUNTEER FIRE DEPARTMENT'S 

ATTACK ON GRACE HALL 

A fire in a second-floor dorm room erupted at 0230 hours. 
The room is well involved and fire has extended to the 
corridor on the second floor by the time the first engine 
arrives . 

The chief arrives on Engine 1 and assumes command. He orders 
Engine 1 to lay a 4- inch line to the front of the building 
and advance a 2- inch line to the second floor. Engine 2 
is ordered to lay a line to the rear and take a 2- inch 
attack line up the back stairway. 

All other personnel on these companies, plus the squad and 
mini-pumper crews, are assigned to search and rescue on 
the second floor due to the high life hazard. The chief 
is counting on a high GPM flow rate and the heavy commitment 
to search and rescue as the best tactics for this situation, 
consciously neglecting ventilation and support functions. 

The initial attack response sequence is as follows: 



Unit 


Arrival Time 


Personnel 


E1 


0236 


6 


E2 


0237 


6 


SQ1 


0238 


6 


MINI 1 


0239 


3 


TANKER 1 


0242 


2 


E3 


0243 


4 


E4 


0245 


3 



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NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



4-27 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



ATTACK ASSESSMENT FORM 
Occupancy (5"rac<- nf* H Initial Attack \\/\ 

Address Sustained Attack J ! 





COMPANY or UNIT 
(Identity and Number of Personnel) 


REQ. 


DEV. 




£-/ 


B-Z 


59.-/ 


w-i- 












LINES 


l-2 H 


I-2' 1 












Jt 


— 


GPM 


3too 


aoo 












4oo 


9 9o 



Personnel to ~ O ' I " ! A. \ A_ \ 

(operate lines | €S \ C* \ \ \ | || T | T | 

l Pump I 1 I 1 I I I I I II 2i I 3L I 

| operators | J- | X | j | j I I °^ I I 

lii^ 1 ~~T^uTTrT3~l I j jlitliij 

(Ventilation | | | | | | II I I 

= = = = = = = =:=: = := = = = = = = = = := = =:=:=:===: = =: = = = = =: = = = = = = = := = = = = = = = = =: = =: = =:= = = = = =:=: = = = = = = = 

I Support | | j | | | | | I O I 3. | 

| Command [ J_ \ \ j | j j | ( «*- | •*• | 

Other I I I I ! i I I 



: = = = = = : 



Can you control the fire? itS 



Can 


you 


rescue 


the 


occup 


>ants? 


^r 




















What 


is 


the 


predic 


table 


outcome? 


Pontrolkd- 


fa 






























NATIONAL FIRE 


ACADEMY 



4-28 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 

SUSTAINED ATTACK TACTICAL DEPLOYMENT STRATEGY 
(Grace Hall and Hillside Fire Department) 



We will assume that the entire Hillside Volunteer Fire 
Department and the mutual aid from Harbrook and Woods ide 
would respond and be placed in operation within 30 minutes. 

The limiting factor will be the 2,375 gpm water supply 
available on campus. Adequate personnel and equipment are 
available to take full advantage of the flow. The chief 
has the options of a tanker shuttle, drafting sources, or a 
relay operation to increase the flow to the 3,500 gpm demand 
needed. 

While any of these options are possible, none of them 
could be accomplished within the 30-minute time frame. 
The additional mutual aid units which are responding could 
probably increase the flow to 3,500 gpm. 

The estimated GPM flowing at the 30-minute time limit is 
2,375 gpm or 68% of the calculated demand. There are no 
aerial devices on the scene to help protect the exposures 
at this time. The first aerial apparatus would not arrive 
for 10 more minutes and would probably not be in operation 
until at least 50 minutes after the initial alarm. 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 4-29 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Occupancy 
Address 



ATTACK ASSESSMENT FORM 



Initial Attack j | 
Sustained Attack \X\ 





COMPANY or UNIT 
(Identity and Number of Personnel) 


TOTALS 






















LINES 




















GPM 





















Personnel to 
operate lines 

Pump 
operators 

Search & 
Rescue 

Ventilation 

Support 

Command 

Other 



Can you control the fire? 



Can you rescue the occupants? 



What is the predictable outcome' 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



4-30 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



SMALL GROUP ACTIVITY 
DIRECTIONS 



For the 70 minutes you will be involved in a small group 
activity applying the information and evaluation tools you 
have just learned. 

For this unit, your student manual contains the set of three 
scenarios which you used in Unit III. In addition there 
are descriptions of five fire departments. 

Your group will work with the same scenario and target 
hazard buildings which you used in the last unit. 

Your instructor will assign a fire department which will 
provide the suppression capability to combat the scenario 
fire. 

Following the fire department descriptions are two sets of 
worksheets for each scenario needed to complete the following 
assignments. 

A. Initial Attack 



1 . Diagram the initial attack on the first set of work- 
sheets provided. 

2. Complete the initial attack assessment form and an- 
swer the questions on the form. 



B. Sustained Attack 

1 . Diagram the sustained attack using r.he second set 
of worksheets provided. 

2. Complete the sustained attack assessment form and 
answer the questions on the form. 

3. Calculate the maximum gpm. 



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NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 4_3l 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



4-32 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



BEARPAW SHOE COMPANY 

The Bearpaw Shoe Company has been one of the largest indus- 
tries in your area for over 75 years. Its complex of two- 
and three-story buildings is crowded into the heart of the 
industrial area, bordering on the central business district. 
Within the last 10 years, shoe production has declined sig- 
nificantly and parts of the complex have been sold and 
rented to a variety of other companies. 

In addition to the shoe company, parts of the complex are 
now occupied by a manufacturer of Styrofoam cups, a tire 
distributor, a swimming pool supply company, a cabinet 
shop, a furniture wholesaler, and a truck body manufacturer. 
Each of these occupants has a portion of the complex ranging 
from a whole wing to part of a floor. 

The buildings were constructed in the early 1900's, some of 
heavy timber and some of fire-resistive construction. All 
of the buildings have automatic sprinklers, supplied by an 
elevated water tank and a steam-driven, 1,500-gpm fire pump. 
The steam for the fire pump comes from the shoe factory's 
main boilers that once ran continuously. Now they are shut 
down at night and on weekends and it takes the plant engi- 
neer 15 minutes to get them fired up again. There is no 
plant engineer on duty while the boilers are shut down. 

There is a system of yard hydrants connected to the private 
supply and to the public water system. The static pressure 
on the public system is 50 psi with 4500 gpm available at 
20 psi. 

The complex is separated from the buildings on Commercial 
Street by a 20-foot-wide alley. The three- and four-story 
buildings on Commercial Street contain a variety of stores 
and businesses, many with apartments on the upper floors. 

Over the years, the plant's sprinkler system and fire bri- 
gade have controlled numerous fires without serious damage. 
The fire brigade was disbanded five years ago and since that 
time the public fire department has responded to a few 
small fires, each controlled by one sprinkler head. 

Your fire inspector has just returned from making an inspec- 
tion of the property and informed you about the lack of 
steam for the boiler at night and on weekends. He is also 
concerned about the adequacy of the fixed fire protection 
in view of the highly cembus-tible nature of the items now 
stored in the building. The elevated storage tank is cur- 
rently empty due to severe leaks which developed when the 
water froze last winter. 
NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 4-33 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



ACADEMY MOTEL 



Several major loss-of-life fires in motels have received 
heavy exposure in the news media over the last five years. 
A five-death fire in a city 200 miles away has finally 
caught the attention of your mayor, who calls to ask about 
the vulnerability of your community to this type of dis- 
aster. You have been waiting for this opportunity to get 
your foot in the door for more than six months when you 
attended a National Fire Academy course, Fire Risk Anal- 
ysis: A Systems Approach." 

At your first meeting with the mayor, you show her the risk 
analysis you have done on the motels in your community and 
and the assessment of your current suppression capability. 
She gives you the green light to propose changes to the fire 
code and to discuss your capability at a public meeting. 
You have 30 days to prepare. 

Your assessment of the risk is reinforced by nationally re- 
ported experience with these types of buildings and a few 
"close calls" locally. While you have not had any hotel or 
motel deaths in your community lately, you have had one or 
two fires each year that could have been much worse with 
just slightly different circumstances. 

The Academy Motel is a two-story enclosed-corridor motel 
which belongs to a major chain. The motel has eight sections 
linked around a central courtyard which features a swimming 
pool and recreation area. It is representative of several 
motels near the interstate highway. 

The construction is brick outer walls with wood partitions 
and floor/roof assemblies. The sections are divided by fire 
walls, with 1 -1 /2-hour-rated fire doors dividing the inter- 
ior corridors at the fire walls. The doors are held open 
with 180°F fusible links. Each wing has at least one open 
stairway joining the first and second floors. You are aware 
of several cases where the fire walls have been penetrated 
in the attic spaces to run air ducts or electrical lines 
between sections. 

The rooms open onto the central corridors from both sides, 
with an average of 60 rooms between fire walls (30 on each 
floor) . The room doors are solid-core wood and many of 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 
4-34 NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



them have spring-loaded hinges that make them self-closing. 
All of the corridor floors and stairs are covered with carpet 
which extends 36 inches up the walls. The remainder of the 
walls and the ceilings are painted. 

This chain has installed battery-operated smoke alarms in 
all their rooms. There is no alarm system in the corridors. 
The only fire fighting equipment required by code is extin- 
guishers mounted every 150 feet in the corridors. Some of 
the wings have pressurized water units and some have 2A 
10BC dry chemical units. 

Soft-drink machines and ice machines are installed under 
the stairs on the ground floor. Roll-away beds and maids' 
carts are often found in the corridors, although a small 
storage room- is provided for these items on each floor in 
each section. 

These buildings were in compliance with the building code 
at the time of their construction. Changes in the code 
since that time 4l required that corridor separation doors and 
room doors be self-closing and be kept closed at all times. 
Fire alarms and emergency lighting are now required in all 
exit corridors, and each room must have a smoke detector * 
These requirements are not retroactive. 



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NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 4-35 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



FORT HILL IS HOTEL 



You have just received a telephone call from the manager of 
the Fort Hillis Hotel, complaining about the three pieces 
of fire apparatus which have been parked in the driveway 
for the last three hours. As you try to explain the fire 
risk analysis program and sympathize about how this looks 
to potential guests, you review in your mind the basic 
characteristics of the building. You have been concerned 
about the life loss potential in this hotel for as long as 
you can remember and always wondered what you might be able 
to do about it, someday. 

Built in 1911, the Fort Hillis is a 10-story, fire resis- 
tive edifice. The building has a massive steel and con- 
crete structure covered with granite facing and ornate mar- 
ble details. A landmark in the downtown area, it is on the 
National Registry of Historic Sites. 

There are 30 guest rooms per floor on the second through 
eighth floors. The ground floor and mezzanine include 
several meeting rooms, a ballroom, and two restaurants, all 
opening onto the main lobby. The west end of the ninth 
floor contains a 3 ,500-square-foot ballroom. The remainder 
of the ninth floor contains the hotel offices and service 
areas, while four luxury suites occupy the of the 10th 
floor. 

The guest rooms average 480 square feet each, although they 
vary from 280 to over 800 square feet on each floor. The 
four luxury suites are each over 1,600 square feet. 

The corridors on each floor form a W-shaped pattern with a 
stairway on the end of each of three wings. These stairways 
were added in the early 1960's and replaced old fire es- 
capes. The stairs are enclosed by concrete on the outside 
walls and separated from the corridors by wired-glass par- 
tition and door assemblies. The doors are held open with 
fusible links. 

There are three elevators at the center of the building, 
and facing the elevator bank is a grand stairway extending 
from the lobby to the tenth floor. This stairway has mar- 
ble steps, polished brass handrails and polished oak panel- 
ing along its length. This stairway is not separated from 
the corridors. 



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4-36 NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



The doors to the rooms are carved wood, without closers. 
When new locks were installed recently, the hotel paid more 
than $75 per door to match the antique faceplates around 
the locks. Each room has a transom. 

The basement, which is not sprinklered, contains a 3,000- 
square-foot disco with an occupant capacity of 250. This is 
reached through an open stairway from the hotel lobby, al- 
though one exit door leads directly to a narrow outside 
stairway to the rear alley. 

In 1968, three hotel guests died in a fire on the fifth 
floor. The fire started in a guest room and extended to the 
corridor. Twenty additional guests, four hotel employees, 
and 1 1 firefighters were overcome by smoke. Many rescues 
were made with ladders as smoke filled most of the building, 
but firefighters were successful in holding the fire to the 
room and a section of the corridor. At that time, officials 
praised the newly installed manual fire alarm system for 
alerting guests to the danger and promptly summoning fire- 
fighters through its direct connection to the fire depart- 
ment. 

The fire was extinguished by one 1-1/2-inch line from a 
hose cabinet and a 2-1/2-inch line from the dry standpipe 
in one of the exit stairway towers. The standpipes had been 
installed, along with the stairways and alarm system, dur- 
ing a major renovation project during 1960-1962. 

There was no building code at the time of the original con- 
struction. The renovation of 1962 brought it into compli- 
ance with the code in effect at that time, with several va- 
riances allowed to preserve the historic character of the 
building. 

The hotel faces a wide boulevard, but is separated from 
large office buildings on each side by 30-foot-wide drive- 
ways. 



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NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 4 " 37 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



PLUGTOWN FIRE DEPARTMENT 



The Plugtown Fire Department protects an urban population 
of 85,000. The department has 100 career employees and 
operates seven engine companies, two ladder companies, and 
one rescue company. Average staffing is one officer and 
two firefighters on the engine companies, while the rescue 
always has an officer and three firefighters. The ladder 
companies are assigned an officer and three firefighters, 
but usually have only two due to holidays, vacation, and 
sick leave. 

The first alarm assignment to target hazards is three 
engines, one ladder, and the rescue, along with the on-duty 
battalion chief. 

Off-duty personnel can be called back in case of a major 
fire, but this requires the dispatcher to call each indi- 
vidual person by telephone. Called-back personnel can 
place three reserve engines and one ladder in service. 
Call-back is only used about once each year, and it takes 
at least 25 minutes to place a reserve company in service. 

Mutual aid is available on request from three adjoining 
departments. These departments can send up to three 
additional engine companies and two ladder companies, with 
an average response time of 14 minutes. These companies 
respond with a crew of either three or four. There are no 
common radio channels, and the equipment, training, and 
standard operating procedures are all different. Mutual 
aid may be called for major fires, but it is utilized only 
on large-scale operations. 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



4-38 NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Plugtown Fire Department Profile 



Response 

Time Personnel 



Engine 2 


4 


min. 


3 


Engine 3 


5 


min. 


3 


Engine 1 


6 


min. 


4 


Ladder 1 


6 


min. 


2 


Rescue 1 


7 


min. 


4 


Battalion 1 


7 


min. 


1 
T7 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 4-39 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



HAZEL COUNTY FIRE DEPARTMENT 



The Hazel County Fire Deparment is comprised of 39 formerly 
independent volunteer companies serving a series of suburban 
areas adjacent to a large city. The county provides career 
personnel to staff companies on weekdays, while most of the 
volunteers are at work in the city and some paid drivers at 
night. On weekends, the department operates almost entirely 
with volunteers. 

The 39 volunteer companies operate 73 first- line pumpers, 
21 ladder trucks, six heavy squad companies, 28 ambulances, 
and a variety of specialized equipment. Each company has a 
volunteer chief, a deputy chief, and a full complement of 
officers. At night and on weekends, there are sufficient 
volunteers sleeping in or standing by at each station to 
place at least two pieces of apparatus on the street immedi- 
ately, and often a third full crew can respond within 3 to 
4 minutes after an alarm. A full structural alarm at these 
times can bring a response of seven engines, two ladders, 
and a squad with five or six volunteers on each vehicle. 
The first unit usually arrives within 3.5 minutes and the 
entire assignment can be on the scene in less than 6 minutes. 
Several command officers also respond. 

During weekdays, the county provides enough personnel to 
staff one vehicle out of each station with a crew of three. 
This brings a normal first-alarm response of 18 personnel 
on three engines, two ladder trucks, and a squad. (Response 
times do not change.) A career battalion chief also re- 
sponds, but may be up to 8 minutes away. Very few, if any, 
volunteers respond during these hours. 

Alarms are transmitted by a central communications center. 
The fully integrated radio system provides complete compati- 
bility with all units in the county and with surrounding 
jurisdictions. Automatic-aid and mutual-aid agreements 
provide integrated response and almost unlimited resources 
in the event of a major incident. At least 20 companies 
are within 20 minutes 1 travel time of most areas. 

The water supply varies from less than 1,000 gpm in a few 
remote areas to more than 10,000 gpm in a heavy industrial 
area. Water supply is generally adequate for the areas 
protected. 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 
4 _ 40 NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Day: 



Night: 



Hazel County Fire Department Profile 





Re 


sponse 








Time 


Personnel 


Engine 11 




5 


3 


Ladder 1 




5.5 


3 


Engine 21 




6 


3 


Engine 31 




7 


3 


Ladder 3 




7.5 


3 


Squad 4 




8 


3 


Battalion 


Chie 


f 8 


1 
19 


Engine 11 




5 


5 


Ladder 1 




5.5 


6 


Engine 21 




6 


6 


Engine 12 




6.5 


5 


Engine 31 




7 


5 


Ladder 3 




7.5 


6 


Engine 22 




7.5 


5 


Squad 4 




8 


6 


Engine 13 




8 


5 


Engine 32 




9 


5 


Chief Officers 


5-9 


5 
59 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 4-41 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



FIREBIRD FIRE DEPARTMENT 



The Firebird Fire Department protects a modern city of 
800,000 population with 37 engine companies, 11 ladder 
companies and five rescue companies. The engine and ladder 
companies are staffed with four personnel at all times, 
while the rescues always have two firefighter/paramedics. 
Four command officers, with aides, are on duty at all 
times. 

Alarms are dispatched by a computer-aided dispatch system. 
Responses are integrated with adioining iurisdictions on an 
automatic-aid basis with a shared dispatch center. 

Most structure fires are dispatched with an initial assign- 
ment of two engines, one ladder, and one command officer. 
This may be upgraded to a second alarm at any time by the 
dispatch or by any responding unit. 

The amount of equipment available for major situations is 
almost unlimited, and water supply is not a problem. At 
most locations, 15 engine companies and five ladders can 
respond within 20 minutes. 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Firebird Fire Department Profile 



1st Alarm Engine 1 
Engine 2 
Ladder 1 
Battalion Chief 1 

2nd Alarm Engine 3 
Rescue 3 
Engine 4 
Ladder 2 
Battalion Chief 2 



Response 




Time 


Personnel 


3 


4 


4 


4 


5 


4 


5 


2 
14 


8 


4 


8 


2 


8 


4 


9 


4 


9 


2 
16 



Response times assume that first due engine calls for second 
alarm on arrival or earlier. 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



ARGO FIRE DEPARTMENT 



The Argo Fire Department protects a city of 28,000 popula- 
tion and operates two fire stations. All personnel are 
full-time career firefighters. The normal duty shift oper- 
ates two pumpers, two mini-pumpers, and one ladder truck; 
with three personnel on each pumper, one on each mini-pumper 
and only a driver on the ladder truck. Two more pumpers 
and a snorkel are available to be operated by off-duty 
personnel on a call-back basis. Two deputy chiefs share 
command responsibilities on a rotating basis, responding 
from home at night. 

All of the on-duty personnel respond to alarms for target 
hazards, and all of the apparatus can be on the scene with- 
in 6 minutes of an alarm at any location in the city. 
The first pumper and mini-pumper usually arrive within 4 
minutes of the initial call to the fire department. 

A second alarm brings all of the reserve apparatus with 
off-duty personnel. These units usually arrive within 12 
minutes after the second alarm with an average of 15 per- 
sonnel. There are no other fire departments to provide 
mutual aid within the 30-rainute response area. A few mu- 
tual-aid units can respond within 45 minutes. 

All of the pumpers are rated at 1,000 gpm. The water supply 
in the central part of the city is limited to 3,200 gpm and 
is severely restricted in some older areas of the community. 



Argo Fire Department Profile 





1 


Response 
Time 


Personnel 


Engine 


4 


3 


Mini 1 




4 


1 


Ladder 


1 


4.5 


1 


Engine 


2 


6 


3 


Mini 2 




6 


1 


DC 




8 


1 
10 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



COLONIAL FIRE DEPARTMENT 



The Colonial Fire Department protects a large city with 42 
engine companies, 21 ladder companies, and 2 rescue squads. 
Due to severe budget reductions over the last 5 years, crews 
have been reduced to three on engines and four on ladders 
and rescues. There are seven battalion chiefs on duty. 
All engine companies operate 1,000-gpra pumpers with 500- 
gallon tanks. 

The central alarm office dispatches three engines, two lad- 
ders, and one rescue to target hazards, under the command 
of a battalion chief. Traffic problems result in an average 
response time of 5 minutes for the first engine company and 
6 minutes for the first ladder. The remaining units arrive 
in less than 8 minutes. Apparatus is generally older and 
in poor condition, with a minimum of equipment. 

Multiple alarms can summon a virtually unlimited amount of 
assistance from the rest of the department and from mutual- 
aid departments. Ten engine companies and five ladder com- 
panies can respond to any location within 20 minutes. Water 
supply is generally adequate for any risk. 



Colonial Fire Department Profile 









Response 
Time 


Personnel 


Engine 1 


5 


3 


Ladder 1 






6 


4 


Engine 2 






7 


3 


Engine 3 






7 


3 


Ladder 2 






8 


4 


Battalion 


Ch 


ief 1 


8 


1 


Rescue 1 






8 


_4 
22 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



REMOTE COUNTY FIRE DEPARTMENT 



The Remote County Fire Department uses full-time, on-call, 
and call-back career personnel to protect a sparsely popu- 
lated area. Most of the county is rural, but there are 
pockets of development throughout most of the county. 

Initial response is usually two pumpers and a 3,000-gallon 
tanker, each with two personnel. The pumpers have 1,000- 
gallon tanks and 750-gpm pumps, since most of the area has 
no water supply system. (When hydrants are available, they 
are limited to 1,000 gpm or less.) Additional personnel 
are dispatched to structure fires, responding in their own 
vehicles or picking up additional apparatus. 

The average response times are listed below for apparatus 
and for call personnel responding in their own vehicles. 

A second alarm will duplicate the original response with an 
average travel time of 20 minutes for all responding person- 
nel and equipment (after the request for the second alarm). 



Remote County Fire Department Profile 





1 


Response 
Time 


Personnel 


1st Alarm 

Engine 


7 

8 

10 


2 
2 
2 


Engine 


2 


12 


2 


Tanker 


1 


15 


2 


2nd Alarm 

Engine 


3 


20 


2 


Engine 


4 


20 


2 


Tanker 


2 


20 


2 
16 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Bearpaw Shoe Co 



US 30 




Commercial St. 



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4-47 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



BEARPAW SHOE CO. 

(FLOOR PLAN) 



ENCLOSED BRIDGE 
AT 2ND FLOOR 



D 

1! 

120' U 



OPEN 
STAIRS 



FREIGHT 
ELEVATOR 



ENCLOSED 
STAIRS 



OFFICE 



40' 



50' 



METAL SHED 
20' HIGH 
USED FOR 
TIRE STORAGE 



80' 



3 STORIES 9600 sq, ft, PER FLOOR 

HEAVY TIMBER CONSTRUCTION 

INCLUDES ONE OPEN STAIRWAY, ONE ENCLOSED STAIRWAY 

OPEN FREIGHT ELEVATOR 

CEILINGS ARE 14' HIGH 

occupancy: GROUND FLOOR - TIRES 

SECOND FLOOR - STYROFOAM CUPS 
THIRD FLOOR - FURNITURE 

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4-48 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Occupancy 
Address 



ATTACK ASSESSMENT FORM 



Initial Attack \ ft\ 
Sustained Attack J \ 





COMPANY or UNIT 
(Identity and Number of Personnel) 


TOTALS 






















LINES 




















GPM 





















Personnel to j I j j \ 

I operate lines | j | j | | II I I 

i pump "T~" " j j j " " | j " " j " " ft r r 

| operators | | | | | | | II I I 

= = === = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =T = = = = == = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = === = = = = = = S = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 

I Search & ! I I I I I I II I I 

I Rescue j \ \ \ \ I III! 

:= = = = = = = = = = = := = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =::= = = :=:=:= = =£ = = = = = =:=: 

IVentilation i I | | | | | II I I 
]support__ ^\_ J ^ ! | | | |] ^ _]_ i 

I Command | j | ! I j III 



Can you control the fire? 



Can you rescue the occupants' 



What is the predictable outcome? 



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4-49 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



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4-50 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Bearpaw Shoe Co 



US 30 







Shopping 
Center 



Commercial St. 



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NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



4-51 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



BEARPAW SHOE CO. 

(FLOOR PLAN) 



ENCLOSED BRIDGE 
AT 2ND FLOOR 



120' V 



OPEN 
STAIRS 



FREIGHT 
ELEVATOR 



ENCLOSED 
STAIRS 



OFFICE 



hl 



\ 



80' 



40' 



50' 



METAL SHED 
20' HIGH 
USED FOR 
TIRE STORAGE 



3 STORIES 9600 sq, ft, PER FLOOR 

HEAVY TIMBER CONSTRUCTION 

INCLUDES ONE OPEN STAIRWAY, ONE ENCLOSED STAIRWAY 

OPEN FREIGHT ELEVATOR 

CEILINGS ARE 14' HIGH 

occupancy: GROUND FLOOR - TIRES 

SECOND FLOOR - STYROFOAM CUPS 
THIRD FLOOR - FURNITURE 

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4-52 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Occupancy 
Address 



ATTACK ASSESSMENT FORM 



Initial Attack | | 
Sustained Attack [Xl 





COMPANY or UNIT 
(Identity and Number of Personnel) 


TOTALS 






















LINES 




















GPM 





















Personnel to j j ( J \ 

I operate lines | J j ! 

I Pump I | I I I I | M|| 

I operators | j j \ \ j ; ' 

I Search & j | I | I j j Mil 

[Rescue | | \ \ I ! \ Mil 

= s==s=s = = = = = = = = = = =s = = = = = = = = = = = =r = = = = =: = = = = =: = = = = = = = = = = =: = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =i= = = = = 

[Ventilation | | | | j | | Mil 

I Support | | I I I ; Mil 

[Command j j | | | | III 

Other I ! I 



Can you control the fire? 



Can you rescue the occupants? 



What is the predictable outcome? 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



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4-54 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Motel 



Hydrant 



335' 



A-Wing 



Hydrant 



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4-55 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 




Motel 
D-Wing 



Fire Wall 



120' 





Fire Wail 



C-Wing 



B-Wing | 



Brick, Wood-joist Construction 
1 1,750 SQ. FT. Per Floor 
330 SQ. FT. Per Rom (22' x 15) 
Corridors 6 FT. Wide; 8 FT. High 

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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Occupancy 
Address 



ATTACK ASSESSMENT FORM 



Initial Attack [Xl 
Sustained Attack ] 





COMPANY or UNIT 
(Identity and Number of Personnel) 


TOTALS 






















LINES 




















GPM 





















Personnel to - I I | j | ! I ' 

I operate lines | | ! j | j | ill! 

I Pump | \ ) I | | | Mil 

I operators j j j i j j j Mil 

I Search & I | { I | I I Mil 

I Rescue | \ \ \ \ | | I I I I 

|Ventilation j j | | | | | Mil 

I Support | i ! i | | ! Mil 

I Command J j j | | | j II I I 

Other ! ! ! ! I I I 



Can you control the fire' 



Can you 


rescue tl 


le occupants? 






What is 


the 


pred 


Lctable outcome? 






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ACADEMY 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Motel 



Hydrant 



335' 



A-Wing 



Hydrant 



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4-59 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 




Motel 
D-Wing 



Fire Wall 



120' 




Fire Wall 



Brick, Wood-joist Construction 
11,750 SQ. FT. Per Floor 
330 SQ. FT. Per Rom (22' x 15') 
Corridors 6 FT. Wide; 8 FT. High 



G-Wing 




C-Wing 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Occupancy 
Address 



ATTACK ASSESSMENT FORM 



Initial Attack 1 1 
Sustained Attack \X\ 





COMPANY or UNIT 
(Identity and Number of Personnel) 


TOTALS 






















LINES 




















GPM 





















Personnel to j j 

I operate lines | ill! ! I i 

| Pum P I I I I 1 I 

I operators j | j j j j 

I Search & | I | I I I I I 

[Rescue i I i I I I I I i ! 

[Ventilation ] | j III! 

| Support j | | 1 \ | ill! 

| Command j j ] \ j \ j III ! 

Other I III 



Can you control the fire? 



Can you 


resc 


ue the occupants? 






What is 


the 


predictable outcome? 






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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



OSURE 



FORT HILLIS HOTEL 

(BLOCK PLAN) 
THREE-LEVEL PARKING GARAGE 



- 30'-* 



STANDPIPES 




-30'- 



EXPOSU 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Fort Hi II is Hotel 

(Typical Floor) 



Stair 



- 52' • 
Stair 




32' ■> 



nag 



15 



32' 



30 



26 



25 



Service 



16 



17 



19 



220' 



FIRE RESISTIVE CONSTRUCTION 



TEN STORIES 
CEILINGS 12 FEET 



25,680 SQ. FT. PER FLOOR 
480 SQ. FT. AVERAGE ROOM 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Occupancy 
Address 



ATTACK ASSESSMENT FORM 



Initial Attack |Xl 
Sustained Attack ] j 





COMPANY or UNIT 
(Identity and Number of Personnel) 




TOTALS 
























LINES 






















GPM 























Personnel to 
operate lines | 

Pump 
operators 

Search & J 

Rescue j 

Ventilation ! 

Support ! 

Command | 

Other ! 



Can you control the fire? 



Can you rescue the occupants? 



What is the predictable outcome'! 



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4-65 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



)SURE 



FORT HILLIS HOTEL 

(BLOCK PLAN) 
THREE-LEVEL PARKING GARAGE 



STANDPIPES 



- 30' 




-30'- 



EXPOSUF 



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4-67 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Fort Hillis Hotel 

(Typical Floor) 



52' 



-52' - 
Stair 




32* •» 



Miiiiiimu 



\ / 



15 



Service 



26 



Service 



28 



12 



16 



17 



220' 



FIRE RESISTIVE CONSTRUCTION 

TEN STORIES 
CEILINGS 12 FEET 



25,680 SQ. FT. PER FLOOR 
480 SQ. FT. AVERAGE ROOM 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Occupancy 
Address 



ATTACK ASSESSMENT FORM 



Initial Attack | 1 
Sustained Attack |X1 





COMPANY or UNIT 
(Identity and Number of Personnel) 


TOTALS 






















LINES 




















GPM 





















Personnel to j | j \ 

operate lines | j j j ! | ] j | | \ 

Pump j | I j I | | I I I I 
operators j | j | | ! j I I r I 

Search & I I I I I \ || I I 

Rescue ! j J j | j | I I F ' I 

Ventilation I | | | \ \ | I I ii ! 

= = = = = = = = = = = = = := — = = = = == = = = =: = = = = == = :=== = = == = ;=;:=:=;=s:= = := = ==== — =: = = = := = = ==; = = :=:= = = = = = ===; 

Support | ] j I I j j I I I I 

== = ==== === = = = = = = = = = =:=====:=========:=:= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = :===: = = =: = ==:= 

Command \ | \ \ \ \ \ Mil 

================= = = = :== === = = =: = = = = = = = =:== = = === = :== = = ===== = = = ========== = 

Other I ! 



Can you control the fire? 



Can you rescue the occupants? 



What is the predictable outcome? 



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4-69 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



RIVERSIDE BOARDING HOME 



BLOCK PLAN 




■&&*. 






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4-71 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



RIVERSIDE BOARDING HOME 

(1ST FLOOR) 



A 



I 



/ 



LINEN 
SERVICE 



STORAGE 



/ 



KITCHEN 



y 



/ 



L/_J 



/I 



DINING 
AREA 



LOUNGE 



/: 



t 



50'- 



WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTION ATTIC USED FOR STORAGE 

MOST ROOMS 15 FT. X 15 FT. CORRIDORS 5 FT. WIDE 

TWO STORIES NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



4-72 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



RIVERSIDE BOARDING HOME 

(2ND FLOOR) 









Ulllllllli.ll 


EXTER 


•^ 


'; ■ i 1 |; 


7 




*" 


i\ 


3 




3 






3 










/ 




/ 




3 


\ 




/ 


2 


















\ 






2 


\ 




\ 






3 


95' 




















\ 




\ 






2 






/, 


UP 




2 






IIIUJllll 








3 


\ 








\ 


2 




; 




DOWN 




\ 






3 








4 


i p 














BALCONY 



Numbers indicate 
sleeping occupancy 
of each room 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Occupancy 
Address 



ATTACK ASSESSMENT FORM 



Initial Attack "|xT 
Sustained Attack J^J 





COMPANY or UNIT 
(Identity and Number of Personnel) 


TOTALS 






















LINES 




















GPM 





















Personnel to I | | l j I 

| operate lines | | j | j j j I I I I 

= = = = = ====== = = ======================================================= 

I PUII1 P I i j i j I j I I I I 

I operators | j | | j | j ! I i I 

I Search & | | I | I | I III! 

I Rescue | | | j | | j I I I I 

IVentilation | | | | | | j I ! i I 

I Support j | | | I | | I I I j 

I Command j | | j | j j Mil 

Other i I ! I 



Can you control the fire' 



Can you rescue the occupants' 



What is the predictable outcome? 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



4-74 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



RIVERSIDE BOARDING HOME 



BLOCK PLAN 










NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



4-75 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



RIVERSIDE BOARDING HOMfl 

(1ST FLOOR) 



t 



/ 



LINEN 
SERVICE 



STORAGE 



/ 



KITCHEN 



y 



/ 



L/_j 



/\ 



DINING 
AREA 



LOUNGE 



i 



a> 



/ 



50' 



WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTION ATTIC USED FOR STORAGE 

MOST ROOMS 15 FT. X 15 FT. CORRIDORS 5 FT. WIDE 

TWO STORIES NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



7-76 



NATfONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



RIVERSIDE BOARDING HOME 

(2ND FLOOR) 









IlllllliUill 


EXTER 




•^ 





T~ 






1 1 


3 




3 






3 




















/ 








3 


\ 






/ 


2 


















\ 






2 












3 






\ 


\ 






95' 




















\ 




\ 






2 






/ 


UP 




2 










MiLiiii; 
nSJm 


















\ 






3 


\ 












2 




; 


1 


DOWN 




\ 






3 








A 


v 














BALCONY 



Numbers indicate 
sleeping occupancy 
of each room 



NATIONAL FIRE ACADEMY 



NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER 



4-77 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Occupancy 
Address 



ATTACK ASSESSMENT FORM 



Initial Attack j ] 
Sustained Attack \X\ 





COMPANY or UNIT 
(Identity and Number of Personnel) 


TOTALS 






















LINES 




















GPM 





















Personnel to 
operate line; 



Pump 
operator! 



Search & 
Rescue 



Ventilation 



ss=== = = = = = = =s=s 



:===s=s=s===s====s====s= 




: = = = = = = = = : 



:r= = = = = = = = = = = 



Can you control the fire? 



Can you rescue the occupants' 



What is the predictable outcome? 



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4-78 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Unit IV: Fire Suppression in the Community 

I. Fire Suppression 
A. Definition 



B. Protection vs. suppression 



C. Relation to risk 



II. GPM. Delivery Capability 

A. One aspect of attach capability. 

B. Used to estimated suppervision capability. 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



C. Supervision capability estimation 



III. Other Fireground Functions 



IV. Initial Attack Assessment 
A. Definition 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



B. Criteria for assessment 



C. Time 



D. Attack Characteristics 



E. Attack priorities 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



F. Time-Temperature relationship 



G. GPM/mode relationship 



Effective initial attack 



V. Sustained Attack Assessment 
A. Definition 



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A_82 ^^^^^^ mmmmm 

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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



B. Characteristics 



C. Calculation 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



UNIT V 
UNPROTECTED RISK 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Unit V: Unprotected Risk 



Objectives 
The participants will be able to: 

1. Describe unprotected risk by comparing the degree of 
risk with the suppression system capability. 

2. Describe and apply the concept of acceptable risk. 



Risk Unit III presented a method to evaluate the level 
Evaluation of risk associated with various locations within 
a community. This risk evaluation is useful in 
identifying the probability that a fire would occur 
in a particular location and estimating the pre- 
dictable consequence if a fire should occur. The 
evaluation of risk enables the fire department to 
determine what it could be called upon to deal with 
if and when an actual fire occurs. The applica- 
tion of this risk analysis at a number of dif- 
ferent locations should provide a profile of the 
community's need for fire suppression services. 

Suppression Unit IV provided a method to evaluate the fire 
Capability suppression capability that is currently in place 
and available to the community. It also provided 
two views of suppression capability: one dealing 
with the immediate response capability and the 
other examining the uncontrolled spread of the 
fire beyond the identified fire area. 



Balance When the suppression capability is compared with 
or the risk, it will reveal either a balance or an 
Imbalance imbalance between the two. Ideally, the amount 
of suppression capability should just balance the 
identified risk--indicating that the fire depart- 
ment's forces are adequately staffed, trained, 
equipped, and capable of dealing with the pre- 
dictable fire situations in the community. It 
may reveal that a community is overprotected, 

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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



that is, it has more fire suppression capability 
than required to match the identified risks. If 
the fire department has more capability than it 
needs to do its job, resources are being wasted. 

Results are more likely to indicate that there 
are locations in the community where the risk 
exceeds the capability of the fire suppression 
forces. There are predictable fire situations 
that cannot be adequately handled by the available 
fire fighting resources. This introduces the con- 
cept of unprotected risk . 

Unprotected "Unprotected risk" is the degree of imbalance 
Risk that exists between the risk and the suppression 
capability. If the fire suppression forces avail- 
able to respond to a particular location are 
inadequate to deal with the predictable fire 
situation, that location is considered an unpro- 
tected risk. 

From the viewpoint of the fire department, unpro- 
tected risk exceeds the service delivery capabil- 
ity of the fire suppression forces available to 
the community. (Note: This definition does not 
conform to the definition of unprotected risk 
used by the insurance industry. Their definition 
refers to a nonsprinklered occupancy.) The fire 
chief may logically make the statement that the 
fire department does not have the capability to 
deal with the predictable fire situations at the 
identified unprotected risk areas. 

Acceptable "Acceptable risk" is an expression of how much 
Risk unprotected risk the community is willing to 
tolerate. The identification of unprotected risk 
leads us directly to the primary question: How 
much risk is the community willing to accept? 
Nothing is ever 100% safe. Acceptable risk is 
not only the amount of unprotected risk that the 
community is willing to accept, but it can also 
be the amount of acceptable loss . Is the community 
willing to pay higher taxes, accept stricter 
code provisions, or make .private investments to 
change the level of unprotected risk? 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Usually, the relationships between unprotected 
risk, acceptable loss and the cost of increasing 
suppression capability are not well understood 
because the choices have never been specifically 
stated. When the fire department budget is cut, 
the community is making a value judgement about 
the level of acceptable risk. When the fire mar- 
shal tries to strengthen the fire code require- 
ments for sprinklers in high-rise buildings, it 
is an attempt to decrease the level of acceptable 
risk. The fire department should be in a posi- 
tion to make these choices explicit for the 
decisionmakers. 

In order to examine the acceptability of unpro- 
tected risk, ask the question: Is this risk 
representative of the entire community? The un- 
protected risk may be in one unique location in 
the community. On the other hand, there may be 
numerous locations that reflect a similar risk 
level. 

Whether or not the level of unprotected risk is 
consistent within the community may influence 
the its willingness to provide public fire sup- 
pression. The level of acceptable risk has 
implications in terms of life safety, property 
protection, and community consequences. 



Comparison The relationship between risk, suppression capa- 
Model bility and unprotected risk is illustrated by the 
following model. 



UNPROTECTED 
~ RISK 



RISK 



SUPPRESSION 
CAPABILITY 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



In this case, the analysis of risk and suppres- 
sion capability reveals a gap. The difference 
between suppression capability and risk is un- 
protected risk. The existence of unprotected 
risk indicates that certain risks exceed the 
current fire suppression capability. 

Goal of the fire protection managers is to mini- 
mize the imbalance between risk and suppression. 
Although it may not be possible to eliminate a 
catastrophic series of events, it is possible to 
prepare for the situations that are predictable. 

The imbalance between risk and suppression capa- 
bility is affected by changes in suppression capa- 
bility or changes in risk. Areas of potential 
improvements exist on both sides of the model. 



Risk Suppression capability can be improved in a num- 
Modifiers ber of ways: more personnel, better training, 
improved strategy and tactics, new apparatus, dif- 
ferent fire station locations, mutual aid, auto- 
matic aid, improved communications, or a better 
water system. The possibilities are numerous. 

The risk is affected by changes in building and 
fire codes, by educating the public, by convincing 
property owners to make voluntary improvements by 
combatting arson, and by enforcing existing codes 
more effectively. 



UNPROTECTED 
RISK - 



DECREASE 




RISK 



INCREASE 



t t 



SUPPRESSION 
CAPABILITY 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Constraints It is not always possible for the fire protection 
manager to make improvements in all areas. The 
areas of potential change are constrained by 
budgets, politics, laws and legislation, public 
pressure, awareness and acceptance, as well as 
effective management policies. The first step, 
however, is the identification of the available 
alternatives. These choices come into focus when 
the specific nature of the problem has been 
identified. 

The purpose of conducting a risk analysis and 
suppression capability analysis is to identify 
the areas of imbalance and to point out the 
problems that must be addressed. With an under- 
standing of the problems, we can begin to focus 
on the solutions. 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



SMALL GROUP ACTIVITY 

USe the same scenario and its data you worked on in Unit 
IV. In the light of this data, answer the following 
questions. 

1 . Is the initial attack capability adequate for the risk? 



2. Is the fire department able to provide the full GPM 
fire flow? 



3. Can the available supervision sources provide adequate 
life safety? 



4. What major consequences will the community suffer if a 
fire is not adequately controlled at this location? 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



SMALL GROUP ACTIVITY TWO 



Take five minutes and evaluate your target hazard (from 
Unit IV) in the light of the resources your community (back 
home) possesses. Use the the questions below as a guide. 

Then, take 10 minutes to discuss your answers with your 
group. 

Finally, be prepared to share your answers with the class 
if asked or called on. 

1 . Does this kind of hazard exist in your community? 



2. How similar or different is yours' 



3. Does your community have the needed resources to handle 
it? 



4. Does it pose a serious life risk for your community? 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



5. What community consequences would occur if it burned? 



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5-12 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Unit V: Unprotected Risk 

I. Unprotected Risk 
A. Definition 



B. Comparison Model 
1 . Description 



2. Risk Reducers 



3. Methods to increase suppression 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



C. Reducing Unprotected Risk (examples) 



II. Acceptable Risk 
A. Definition 



B. Implications 



C. Who determines acceptable risk? 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



UNIT VI 

STRATEGIES TO 
CONSIDER 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Unit VI : Strategies To Consider 



Objectives 
The participants will: 

1. Identify the deficiencies found in the problem occupan- 
cies and model fire departments. 

2. Start to formulate a "systems approach" to intervention 
strategies and solutions to fire risk problems. 



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6-3 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 

PROBLEM LIST 
STEP 1 : List the problems 



IZI 



IZI 



IZI 



IZI 



IZI 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



IZI 



IZI 



STEP 2: Go back to the box provided and assign a priority to 
each problem using numbers 1-9. 



IZI 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



STEP 3: Identify the subject groupings using fire supervision, 
fire protection systems, or fire prevention and public 
education in the order of your priorities. 



Priority Subject Ease of 

Number Groupings Accomplishment 

1. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 



STEP 4: Rank each of your subject groupings by ease of accom- 
plishment using scale: 

A = Very Difficult 

B = Difficult 

C = Easy 

D = Very Easy 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Appendix A 



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INITIAL ATTACK FIRE FLOW FORM 



Occupancy 



Largest open space 



Dimensions of space: L: W: 

L x W x H 



100 

Multiple areas 



Other open space 



Dimensions of space: L: W: 



Other open space 



Dimensions of space: L: W: 



Other open space 



Dimensions of space: L: W: 



GPM 



Li x H-| x Wi L£ x H2 x W2 

+ + . . . = GPM 

100 100 



FIRE FLOW EST L MATE FORM 



BLOCK A: BASIC INFORMATION 

Occupancy Name 

Address 



Calculated by 



Classification 

F.M.A. 



Est. F.F, 



GPM 



BLOCK B: DETERMINE TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION (Circle one) 
Fire Resistive N on- Combustible Heavy Timber 
Ordinary Wood Frame Mixed 



BLOCK C: DETERMINE EFFECTIVE AREA 



Largest floor area 



Add: a) 50% of all other floor areas 
except for fire resistive 
construction; 
OR 

b) 25% of two largest successive 
floor areas for fire resistive 
construction with vertical 
separations; 

OR 

c) 50% of eight largest successive 
floors for fire resistive 
construction with unprotected 
vertical openings. 



TOTALS COLUMN 



(sq. ft.) 



(sq. ft.) 



(C) 

total 

sq.ft, 



TABLE 1_: BASE FIRE FLOW 
Fire Area (in square feet) for Various Construction Types 



Base 


Fire 


Non- 


Ordinary* or 


Wood 


Fire Flow 


Resistive 


Combustible 


Heavy Timber 


Frame 


500 


3,300 


1 ,900 


1 ,200 


500 


750 


6,600 


3,700 


2,400 


1 ,100 


1 ,000 


10,900 


6,100 


3,900 


1 ,700 


1 ,250 


16,200 


9,100 


5,800 


2,600 


1 ,500 


22,700 


12,700 


8,200 


3,600 


1 ,750 


30,200 


17,000 


10,900 


4,800 


2,000 


38,700 


21 ,800 


13,900 


6,200 


2,250 


48,300 


27,200 


17,400 


7,700 


2,500 


59,000 


33,200 


21 ,300 


9,400 


2,750 


70,900 


39,700 


25,500 


11 ,300 


3,000 


83,700 


47,100 


30,100 


13,400 


3,250 


97,700 


54,900 


35,200 


15,600 


3,500 


112,700 


63,400 


40,600 


18,000 


3,750 


128,700 


72,400 


46,400 


20,600 


4,000 


145,900 


82,100 


52,500 


23,300 


4,250 


164,200 


92,400 


59,100 


26,300 


4,500 


183,400 


103,100 


66,000 


29,300 


4,750 


203,700 


114,600 


73,300 


32,600 


5,000 


225,200 


126,700 


81 ,100 


36,000 


5,250 


247,700 


139,400 


89,200 


39,600 


5,500 


271 ,200 


152,600 


97,700 


43,400 


5,750 


295,900 


166,500 


106,500 


47,400 


6,000 


greater 


greater 


115,800 


51 ,500 


6,250 






125,500 


55,700 


6,500 






135,500 


60,200 


6,750 






145,800 


64,800 


7,000 






156,700 


69,600 


7,250 






167,900 


74,600 


7,500 






179,400 


79,800 


7,750 






191 ,400 


85,100 


8,000 






greater 


greater 



*Fire flow not to exceed 6,000 gpm in one-story 
buildings not exceeding 16 feet in height. 



BLOCK D: DETERMINE BASE FIRE FLOW 



Select the correct GPM figure from Table 1 



TOTALS COLUMN 



(D) 
GPM 



BLOCK E: DETERMINE OCCUPANCY FACTOR ADJUSTMENT 



Step 1 : Select a high or low fire load 
factor up to 25% 



Step 2: Multiply (D) by this factor. 



Step 3: If HIGH RISK, add the amount to 
(D); if LOW RISK, subtract. 



NEW ADJUSTED TOTAL = 



TOTALS COLUMN 



GPM 



(E) 
GPM 



BLOCK F: DETERMINE EXPOSURE ADJUSTMENT 

Using the tables below, enter the 
separation and the adjustment for 
each of the building* s four 
"faces." 



Separation Adjustment 
in Feet Range 



- 10 15-25% 

11 - 30 10-20% 

31-60 7 - 15% 

61-100 5-10% 



Expo- 
sure 



North 



East 



South 



West 



Sep. 
Feet 



Adj. 



Total adjustment not more than 75% 



Multiply (E) by this percentage. 
Add this amount to Line E. 



NEW ADJUSTED TOTAL 



TOTALS COLUMN 



(F) 
GPM 






BLOCK G: TOTAL REQUIRED FIRE FLOW 

1 If less than 500 GPM, enter 500 GPM 11 

% If greater than 12,000 GPM, enter 11 

1 12,000 GPM. 11 

1 If less than 2,500 GPM, round off 11 

K (E) to the nearest 250 GPM. II 

K If greater than 2,500 GPM, round 11 

K off (E) to the nearest 500 GPM. II 



TOTALS COLUMN 



(G) 
GPM 



TOTAL REQUIRED FIRE FLOW (ROUNDED OFF) = 

<«< Carry this final total to Block A, Line 3 >»> 



LIFE RISK MATRIX 





Exit Classification 


Protection 


Exterior 
exits 


Interior exits 
access corridors 


Inadequate 
exits 


Fully sprinklered AND fully 
covered by a detection 
system. 


very low 


very low 


low 


Fully sprinklered OR fully 
covered by a detection 
system. 


very low 


low 


medium 


Sprinklered exit corridors 
AND detectors in sleeping 
areas . 


very low 


low 


medium 


Detectors in sleeping areas 
only. 


mediim 


high 


very high 


Manual fire alarm only. 


medium 


high 


very high 


No early warning system. 


medium 


very high 


very high 



1. In non- res ident ial occupancies if all the occupants are normally awake and 
able to exit without assistance, lower the life risk by one classification, 

2. Estimated number of total occupants in the target hazard: 

3. Estimated number of occupants in IMMEDIATE danger: 

4. Special factors affecting life risk: 



FIRE RISK RATING SUMMARY FORM 



Occupancy 
Name 

Address 



Classification 

F.M.A. 



Calculated by 



TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION (Circle one) 
Fire Resistive Heavy Timber 
Non- combustible Wood Frame 



Ordinary 
Mixed 



Property Risk 


Initial attack: gpm j 
Sustained attack: gpm 


Life Risk 


Degree of risk: 


Total occupants: 


Occ. in immediate danger: 




Community 
Consequences 


(Circle one) 
very very 
low low medium high high 



Special Risk Factors: 



:= = = = = = 



ATTACK ASSESSMENT FORM 



Occupancy 
Address 



Initial Attack ; 
Sustained Attack J | 





COMPANY or UNIT 
(Identity and Number of Personnel) 




REQ. 


DEV. 
























LINES 






















GPM 























Personnel to 
operate lines 



Pump 
operator} 



===== 



Search & 
Rescue 



Ventilation 



Support 



Command 



Other 



Can you control the fire? 



Can you rescue the occupants' 



What is the predictable outcome? 



FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



Appendix B 



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FIRE RISK ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



G. West Churchman, THE SYSTEMS APPROACH. N.Y., N.Y. : 
Delacorte Press, 1968. 



Rosna, Joel de , THE MACROSCOPE: A NEW WORLD SCIENTIFIC 
SYSTEM. N.Y., N.Y.: Harper & Row Publishers, 1979. 

COMMUNITY FIRE PROTECTION MASTER PLAN. Palm Springs, 
CA: City of Palm Springs, 1979. 



"National Fire Incident Reporting System", FIRE IN THE 
UNITED STATES, The Federal Emergency Management Agency, 
Second Edition, July, 1982. 



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UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS-UHBANA 



3 0112 105179771